6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever

BY: SAM LUBELL MAY 3RD, 2017

The inspiration for housing developments as we know them was not pulled out of thin air. Over the years notable residential projects have, for better or worse, shaped the development that’s taken place since. Many have taken on cultish status, endlessly referenced, documented and imitated. They have become architectural rock stars or in come cases, villains. Often they played these roles simultaneously.


Forest Hills, Queens, NY, 20th Century

The idea of the Garden City—a self-contained town infused with greenery and surrounded by green belts—was first initiated by Ebenezer Howard in the late 19th Century. It has been passed on as legend for generations. One of the first manifestations of the idea was Forest Hills Gardens, a 175-acre suburb consisting of over 800 freestanding and attached homes and 11 apartments. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted Jr, son of the famed designer of Central Park, the development consisted of gracefully placed English-style brick homes shaded by thick trees and verdant landscaping. The Garden Suburb, with its tree-lined streets, low-density homes, and generous parks and woods, took off at this time. Other examples (among many) include Hampstead Garden Suburb outside London, Llewellyn Park, in northern New Jersey, the Main Line, outside Philadelphia, Coral Gables, outside Miami, and Wyvernwood Garden Apartments, in Los Angeles.

Park La Brea, 1944

After World War II large housing developments sprouted up across the country, responding to pent up demand, generous mortgage terms, and a booming economy and population. One of the first was located in the mid-Wilshire neighborhood. Instigated by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, the plan situated 18 13-story towers and many more cottages within the California landscape. Only about 20 percent of the land was dedicated to buildings, and each unit looks onto park space. Metropolitan Life also developed many of the country’s most important large-scale developments, including Stuyvesant Town in New York, Park Merced in San Francisco, and Park Fairfax in Alexandria, Virginia.

Sea Ranch, 1965

Perhaps no housing development is as enchanting as Sea Ranch, a community of Bay Modernist homes perched on a 10 mile stretch of rugged cliffs, about three hours north of San Francisco. Straddling both sides of the Pacific Coast Highway, it extends about a mile inland, creating a linear form consisting of clusters of houses marked by cypress and pine hedgerows that form enclaves of grassy meadows. The tiny town was founded by developer Oceanic California, whose planning director Al Boeke assembled a group of architects, landscape architects and planners to create a place where all buildings recognize and reinforce the natural topography, placed ‘within it, not upon it.’ Lawrence Halprin led the landscape development, while prototype buildings – angular, modern structures clad in vertical wood siding, like barns – were created by Moore, Lyndon, Turnbull, and Whitaker (MLTW), Joseph Esherick, and others. The most famous is the ten-unit Condominium One, Charles Moore’s first major work. The shed-style building, with its mono-pitched roof, comprises intimate spaces containing ‘saddlebags,’ small projections that provide views and contemplative space.

Seaside, 1981

Founded by developer Robert Davis on an 80-acre plot along the Florida Gulf Coast, Seaside is the unofficial Mecca for New Urbanism, a design movement dedicated to re-instituting traditional planning and architecture. Seaside’s master plan, devised by Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, intended to invoke the scale and character of an old Southern town, with strict height limits, walkable streets, mid-block footpaths, and vernacular styles of architecture like Victorian, Palladian, Charleston, Antebellum, and Greek Revival. Each home had to have a front porch and a picket fence. As the plan developed, architects like Deborah Berke, Steven Holl Architects, and Machado & Silvetti added more contemporary additions to the town’s commercial fabric. Like Disney’s Celebration, Seaside became a model not just for new urbanism, but for Postmodern developments countrywide.

Monterrey Housing, 2009

As our communities continue to densify and increase in cost, we’re grasping unsuccessfully for the next vital housing models. One of the most impactful recent examples is Elemental’s Monterrey Housing, an affordable, state-sponsored development of 70 homes in Santa Catarina, Mexico. The project consists of a continuous three story building with the “home” on the first floor and a two-story duplex above. Its density saves cost while still allowing for flexibility as a family grows or obtains more funds. Rows of these residences surround internal courtyards and are topped by thin, unifying rooflines. Elemental, of course, is helmed by recent Pritzker Prize winner (and Venice Architecture Biennale curator) Alejandro Aravena, and his high profile has helped him put this and other affordable plans on the world stage.

Linked Hybrid, 2009

This stacked, city-in-a-city, located next to the site of the old city wall of Beijing, was designed as an antidote to the country’s walled, privatized housing developments. Consisting of eight residential and hotel towers, the complex’s ground level offers a number of open passages, lined with retail, restaurants, schools, and cinemas for both residents and visitors. Intermediate spaces include public roof gardens, while upper levels are linked via planted sky bridges, spanning penthouses. Green space and large ponds surround the project, making it a green oasis in a sea of concrete.

Whoops, looks like something went wrong.

1/1 ErrorException in Writer.php line 24: fopen(/home/deploy/brickandwonder.com/wwwroot/statamic/../static/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever_.html): failed to open stream: No such file or directory

  1. in Writer.php line 24
  2. at HandleExceptions->handleError('2', 'fopen(/home/deploy/brickandwonder.com/wwwroot/statamic/../static/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever_.html): failed to open stream: No such file or directory', '/home/deploy/brickandwonder.com/wwwroot/statamic/core/StaticCaching/Writer.php', '24', array('path' => '/home/deploy/brickandwonder.com/wwwroot/statamic/../static/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever_.html', 'content' => '<!DOCTYPE html> <!--[if lt IE 7]><html class="no-js lt-ie9 lt-ie8 lt-ie7"><![endif]--> <!--[if IE 7]><html class="no-js lt-ie9 lt-ie8" <![endif]--> <!--[if IE 8]><html class="no-js lt-ie9" <![endif]--> <!--[if gt IE 8]><!--> <html class="no-js"> <!--<![endif]--> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1"> <meta name="p:domain_verify" content="0f692d5c691bb1650b47fe04ea53350f"/> <title>6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever</title> <meta name="description" content="The inspiration for housing developments as we know them was not pulled out of thin air. Over the years notable residential projects have, for..."> <meta property="og:title" content="6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever" /> <meta property="og:url" content="https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever" /> <meta property="og:type" content="blog" /> <meta property="og:description" content="The inspiration for housing developments as we know them was not pulled out of thin air. Over the years notable residential projects have, for..." /> <meta property="og:image" content="https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg" /> <meta property="fb:app_id" content="941157732639664" /> <script type="application/ld+json"> { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "BreadcrumbList", "itemListElement": [ { "@type": "ListItem", "position": 1, "item": { "@id": "https://brickandwonder.com/", "name": "Exceptional Real Estate & Design Talent" } },{ "@type": "ListItem", "position": 2, "item": { "@id": "https://brickandwonder.com/journal", "name": "Journal" } },{ "@type": "ListItem", "position": 3, "item": { "@id": "https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever", "name": "6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever", "image": "https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg" } }] } </script> <script type="application/ld+json"> { "@context":"http://schema.org", "@type":"BlogPosting", "name":"6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever", "headline":"6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever", "dateCreated":"May 3rd, 2017", "keywords":"Architecture, Process", "image":"https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg", "author":"Sam Lubell", "datePublished":"2017-05-03", "publisher":"Organization" } </script> <link rel="canonical" href="https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="/site/themes/main/css/main-b7f354f9c9.min.css" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="/site/themes/main/css/wufoo.css"> <script> // https://github.com/morris/typekit-cache !function(e,t,n,a,c,l,m,o,d,f,h,i){c[l]&&(d=e.createElement(t),d[n]=c[l],e[a]("head")[0].appendChild(d),e.documentElement.className+=" wf-cached"),function s(){for(d=e[a](t),f="",h=0;h<d.length;h++)i=d[h][n],i.match(m)&&(f+=i);f&&(c[l]="/**/"+f),setTimeout(s,o+=o)}()}(document,"style","innerHTML","getElementsByTagName",localStorage,"tk",/^@font|^\.tk-/,100); (function(d) { var config = { kitId: 'vib5hdw', scriptTimeout: 3000, async: true }, h=d.documentElement,t=setTimeout(function(){h.className=h.className.replace(/\bwf-loading\b/g,"")+" wf-inactive";},config.scriptTimeout),tk=d.createElement("script"),f=false,s=d.getElementsByTagName("script")[0],a;h.className+=" wf-loading";tk.src='https://use.typekit.net/'+config.kitId+'.js';tk.async=true;tk.onload=tk.onreadystatechange=function(){a=this.readyState;if(f||a&&a!="complete"&&a!="loaded")return;f=true;clearTimeout(t);try{Typekit.load(config)}catch(e){}};s.parentNode.insertBefore(tk,s) })(document); </script> <!-- Facebook Pixel Code --> <script> !function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s){if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod? n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};if(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n; n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version='2.0';n.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0; t.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];s.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window, document,'script','https://connect.facebook.net/en_US/fbevents.js'); fbq('init', '1832634483660033'); // Insert your pixel ID here. fbq('track', 'PageView'); </script> <noscript><img height="1" width="1" style="display:none" src="https://www.facebook.com/tr?id=1832634483660033&ev=PageView&noscript=1" /></noscript> <!-- DO NOT MODIFY --> <!-- End Facebook Pixel Code --> <script async defer src="//assets.pinterest.com/js/pinit.js"></script> <link rel="shortcut icon" type="image/png" href="/site/themes/main/img/favicon.png"> <style> </style> <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.2.1/jquery.min.js"></script> </head> <body class="tan"> <div id="co-registration-trigger"></div> <div class="nav mobile"> <div class="container"> <div class="nav-wrap"> <div id="box"> <ul id="trigger-overlay"> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> </ul> </div> <a id="logo" href="/"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?> <svg viewBox="0 0 165 77" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:sketch="http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch/ns"> <!-- Generator: Sketch 3.5.1 (25234) - http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch --> <title>logo</title> <desc>Created with Sketch.</desc> <defs></defs> <g id="Page-1" stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd" sketch:type="MSPage"> <g id="logo" sketch:type="MSLayerGroup" fill="#EBE9E2"> <path d="M83.4,1.4 L92.1,1.4 C92.9,1.4 93.3,2 93.3,3 L93.3,21.7 L99.5,15.6 C100.3,14.8 100.1,13.7 99.1,13.7 L98.2,13.7 L98.2,9.6 L109.3,9.6 L109.3,13.7 L108,13.7 C107.3,13.7 106.5,14.1 106,14.6 L100.7,19.7 L107.1,29 C107.8,29.9 108.3,30.3 108.9,30.3 L109.4,30.3 L109.4,34.2 L102.7,34.2 L96,24.2 L93.2,26.9 L93.2,30.3 L95.6,30.3 L95.6,34.2 L83.5,34.2 L83.5,30.3 L85.1,30.3 C85.7,30.3 86.3,29.6 86.3,29.1 L86.3,6.6 C86.3,6.1 85.7,5.3 85.1,5.3 L83.3,5.3 L83.3,1.4 L83.4,1.4 L83.4,1.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M73.7,9.2 C77.7,9.2 80.4,9.8 82,10.5 L82,16.1 L77.9,16.1 C77.1,14.4 76,13.6 73.6,13.6 C69.9,13.6 67.6,16.2 67.6,22.1 C67.6,28 69.5,30.4 73.5,30.4 C76.6,30.4 77.8,29 78.8,27.8 L82.1,27.8 L82.1,32.6 C80.3,33.6 77.5,34.7 73.3,34.7 C64.7,34.7 60.5,30 60.5,22.1 C60.6,14.1 65.7,9.2 73.7,9.2 L73.7,9.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M53.4,0.4 C55.5,0.4 57.1,2 57.1,4.1 C57.1,6.2 55.5,7.7 53.4,7.7 C51.3,7.7 49.7,6.1 49.7,4.1 C49.7,2.1 51.3,0.4 53.4,0.4 L53.4,0.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M46.9,9.6 L55.8,9.6 C56.6,9.6 56.9,10.4 56.9,12.2 L56.9,29.2 C56.9,29.8 57.5,30.4 58.1,30.4 L59.9,30.4 L59.9,34.3 L47.1,34.3 L47.1,30.4 L48.9,30.4 C49.5,30.4 50,29.7 50,29.2 L50,15 C50,14.5 49.4,13.7 48.9,13.7 L46.9,13.7 L46.9,9.6 L46.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M27.9,9.6 L36.3,9.6 C37.1,9.6 37.6,10.3 37.7,13.2 C39.3,11.2 41.3,9.4 44.5,9.4 C45,9.4 45.5,9.5 46,9.6 L46,14.7 L44.8,14.7 C41.2,14.7 39.1,15.5 37.7,16.2 L37.7,30.4 L41.1,30.4 L41.1,34.3 L28,34.3 L28,30.4 L29.6,30.4 C30.2,30.4 30.8,29.7 30.8,29.2 L30.8,15 C30.8,14.5 30.2,13.7 29.6,13.7 L27.8,13.7 L27.8,9.6 L27.9,9.6 L27.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M36.6,57.2 L31,76.3 L25.1,76.3 L20.4,60.3 L20.3,60.3 L15.4,76.3 L9.5,76.3 L3.9,57.1 C3.6,56.3 3.1,55.8 2.4,55.8 L1.5,55.8 L1.5,51.6 L12.4,51.6 L12.4,55.7 L10.2,55.7 L13.4,68 L13.5,68 L18.3,51.5 L23.6,51.5 L28.4,68 L28.5,68 L31,58.8 C31.6,56.6 31.4,55.7 29.4,55.7 L28.7,55.7 L28.7,51.6 L39,51.6 L39,55.7 L38.2,55.7 C37.6,55.7 36.9,56.2 36.6,57.2 L36.6,57.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M93.6,76.3 L81.4,76.3 L81.4,72.4 L84.2,72.4 L84.2,59.7 C84.2,57.3 83.3,56.5 81,56.5 C79,56.5 77.2,56.9 75.6,57.4 L75.6,72.3 L78.5,72.3 L78.5,76.2 L65.9,76.2 L65.9,72.3 L67.5,72.3 C68.1,72.3 68.7,71.6 68.7,71.1 L68.7,56.9 C68.7,56.4 68.1,55.6 67.5,55.6 L65.7,55.6 L65.7,51.6 L74.1,51.6 C74.9,51.6 75.4,52.3 75.5,54.8 C77.8,52.6 81,51.2 84.7,51.2 C88.1,51.2 91.1,52.6 91.1,57.4 L91.1,71.2 C91.1,71.8 91.7,72.4 92.3,72.4 L93.6,72.4 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M165,56.7 L163.8,56.7 C160.2,56.7 158.1,57.5 156.7,58.2 L156.7,72.4 L160.1,72.4 L160.1,76.3 L147,76.3 L147,72.4 L148.6,72.4 C149.2,72.4 149.8,71.7 149.8,71.2 L149.8,57 C149.8,56.5 149.2,55.7 148.6,55.7 L146.8,55.7 L146.8,51.6 L155.2,51.6 C156,51.6 156.5,52.3 156.6,55.2 C158.2,53.2 160.2,51.4 163.4,51.4 C163.9,51.4 164.4,51.5 164.9,51.6 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M120.3,72.6 C119.7,72.6 119.1,71.8 119.1,71.3 L119.1,45.1 C119.1,44.1 118.7,43.5 117.9,43.5 L109,43.5 L109,47.5 L112.1,47.5 L112.1,54.5 C110.5,52.6 108.4,51.3 105,51.3 C100.2,51.3 94.4,55 94.4,64.3 C94.4,73.7 99.8,76.7 104.7,76.7 C108.1,76.7 110.6,75.3 112.2,73.5 C112.4,75.3 112.8,76.3 113.5,76.3 L121.9,76.3 L122,76.3 L122,72.6 L120.3,72.6 L120.3,72.6 Z M112.1,70.6 C110.8,71.8 109.2,72.6 107,72.6 C104.2,72.6 101.4,70.9 101.4,64.1 C101.4,57.8 104.4,55.9 107.5,56 C109.2,56 110.9,56.5 112.1,57.1 L112.1,70.6 L112.1,70.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M52.1,51.2 C44.9,51.2 39.1,56 39.1,64 C39.1,71.9 44.9,76.6 52.1,76.6 C59.3,76.6 65.1,72 65.1,64 C65.1,56.1 59.3,51.2 52.1,51.2 L52.1,51.2 Z M52.1,72.3 C48.7,72.3 46.1,69.7 46.1,64.1 C46.1,58.5 48.7,55.7 52.1,55.7 C55.6,55.7 58.2,58.5 58.1,64.1 C58.1,69.7 55.5,72.3 52.1,72.3 L52.1,72.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M18,9.2 C14.4,9.2 12,10.9 10.1,12.9 L10.1,3 C10.1,2 9.7,1.4 8.9,1.4 L0.3,1.4 L0.3,5.3 L2.1,5.3 C2.7,5.3 3.3,6.1 3.3,6.6 L3.3,34.2 L7.1,34.2 C7.7,34.2 8.7,33.1 9.4,31.8 C10.9,33.4 13,34.6 16.7,34.6 C21.9,34.6 27.3,31.1 27.3,21.6 C27.3,12.3 22.7,9.2 18,9.2 L18,9.2 Z M14.5,30.7 C12.4,30.7 11.1,30.1 10,29.3 L10,15.2 C11.5,14.7 13.2,14.2 14.6,14.2 C17.6,14.2 20.3,15.7 20.3,22.2 C20.3,29.1 17.3,30.7 14.5,30.7 L14.5,30.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M152.9,30.6 C152.2,30.6 151.7,30.1 150.8,29.3 L147.7,26.2 C148.9,23.9 149.7,21.5 150.5,19.1 C150.7,18.3 151.3,17.9 152,17.9 L153.1,17.9 L153.1,14 L143,14 L143,17.9 L145.2,17.9 C144.8,19.3 144.4,20.8 143.7,22.3 L135.9,14.5 C134.3,12.9 133.2,11.5 133.2,9.5 C133.2,7.4 134,5.9 137,5.9 C138.5,5.9 139,6.2 139.8,6.5 L140.6,10 L145.5,10 L145.5,1.5 L139.8,1.5 C139.3,1.3 137.4,1.1 136,1.1 C130,1.1 126,4.4 126,9.6 C126,12.4 126.8,14.2 128.2,16 C124.2,17.7 121.4,20.3 121.5,25.5 C121.5,31.4 125.7,34.9 133.5,34.9 C137.7,34.9 140.9,33.7 143.3,31.8 L146,34.5 L153.3,34.5 L153.3,30.6 L152.9,30.6 L152.9,30.6 Z M134.6,30 C130.6,30 128.9,27.5 128.8,24.3 C128.8,21.7 129.8,20 130.9,18.9 L139.7,28 C138.3,29.2 136.6,30 134.6,30 L134.6,30 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M146,63.3 C146,55 142.2,51.2 134.8,51.2 C127.3,51.2 122.4,56 122.4,64 C122.4,71.8 126.6,76.6 135.2,76.6 C140.4,76.6 143.1,75.4 145.1,74.2 L145.1,69.7 L141.2,69.7 C139.9,71.3 138.9,72.4 135.8,72.4 C131.8,72.4 129.7,70.1 129.4,65.2 L145.9,65.2 C145.9,65 146,64.2 146,63.3 L146,63.3 Z M129.5,61.3 C130,57.1 131.9,55.3 134.8,55.3 C137.6,55.3 138.9,57 139.1,61.3 L129.5,61.3 L129.5,61.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> </g> </g> </svg></a> <div class="box-spacer"></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="nav desktop title"> <div class="container"> <div class="nav-wrap"> <a id="logo" href="/"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?> <svg viewBox="0 0 165 77" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:sketch="http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch/ns"> <!-- Generator: Sketch 3.5.1 (25234) - http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch --> <title>logo</title> <desc>Created with Sketch.</desc> <defs></defs> <g id="Page-1" stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd" sketch:type="MSPage"> <g id="logo" sketch:type="MSLayerGroup" fill="#EBE9E2"> <path d="M83.4,1.4 L92.1,1.4 C92.9,1.4 93.3,2 93.3,3 L93.3,21.7 L99.5,15.6 C100.3,14.8 100.1,13.7 99.1,13.7 L98.2,13.7 L98.2,9.6 L109.3,9.6 L109.3,13.7 L108,13.7 C107.3,13.7 106.5,14.1 106,14.6 L100.7,19.7 L107.1,29 C107.8,29.9 108.3,30.3 108.9,30.3 L109.4,30.3 L109.4,34.2 L102.7,34.2 L96,24.2 L93.2,26.9 L93.2,30.3 L95.6,30.3 L95.6,34.2 L83.5,34.2 L83.5,30.3 L85.1,30.3 C85.7,30.3 86.3,29.6 86.3,29.1 L86.3,6.6 C86.3,6.1 85.7,5.3 85.1,5.3 L83.3,5.3 L83.3,1.4 L83.4,1.4 L83.4,1.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M73.7,9.2 C77.7,9.2 80.4,9.8 82,10.5 L82,16.1 L77.9,16.1 C77.1,14.4 76,13.6 73.6,13.6 C69.9,13.6 67.6,16.2 67.6,22.1 C67.6,28 69.5,30.4 73.5,30.4 C76.6,30.4 77.8,29 78.8,27.8 L82.1,27.8 L82.1,32.6 C80.3,33.6 77.5,34.7 73.3,34.7 C64.7,34.7 60.5,30 60.5,22.1 C60.6,14.1 65.7,9.2 73.7,9.2 L73.7,9.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M53.4,0.4 C55.5,0.4 57.1,2 57.1,4.1 C57.1,6.2 55.5,7.7 53.4,7.7 C51.3,7.7 49.7,6.1 49.7,4.1 C49.7,2.1 51.3,0.4 53.4,0.4 L53.4,0.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M46.9,9.6 L55.8,9.6 C56.6,9.6 56.9,10.4 56.9,12.2 L56.9,29.2 C56.9,29.8 57.5,30.4 58.1,30.4 L59.9,30.4 L59.9,34.3 L47.1,34.3 L47.1,30.4 L48.9,30.4 C49.5,30.4 50,29.7 50,29.2 L50,15 C50,14.5 49.4,13.7 48.9,13.7 L46.9,13.7 L46.9,9.6 L46.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M27.9,9.6 L36.3,9.6 C37.1,9.6 37.6,10.3 37.7,13.2 C39.3,11.2 41.3,9.4 44.5,9.4 C45,9.4 45.5,9.5 46,9.6 L46,14.7 L44.8,14.7 C41.2,14.7 39.1,15.5 37.7,16.2 L37.7,30.4 L41.1,30.4 L41.1,34.3 L28,34.3 L28,30.4 L29.6,30.4 C30.2,30.4 30.8,29.7 30.8,29.2 L30.8,15 C30.8,14.5 30.2,13.7 29.6,13.7 L27.8,13.7 L27.8,9.6 L27.9,9.6 L27.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M36.6,57.2 L31,76.3 L25.1,76.3 L20.4,60.3 L20.3,60.3 L15.4,76.3 L9.5,76.3 L3.9,57.1 C3.6,56.3 3.1,55.8 2.4,55.8 L1.5,55.8 L1.5,51.6 L12.4,51.6 L12.4,55.7 L10.2,55.7 L13.4,68 L13.5,68 L18.3,51.5 L23.6,51.5 L28.4,68 L28.5,68 L31,58.8 C31.6,56.6 31.4,55.7 29.4,55.7 L28.7,55.7 L28.7,51.6 L39,51.6 L39,55.7 L38.2,55.7 C37.6,55.7 36.9,56.2 36.6,57.2 L36.6,57.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M93.6,76.3 L81.4,76.3 L81.4,72.4 L84.2,72.4 L84.2,59.7 C84.2,57.3 83.3,56.5 81,56.5 C79,56.5 77.2,56.9 75.6,57.4 L75.6,72.3 L78.5,72.3 L78.5,76.2 L65.9,76.2 L65.9,72.3 L67.5,72.3 C68.1,72.3 68.7,71.6 68.7,71.1 L68.7,56.9 C68.7,56.4 68.1,55.6 67.5,55.6 L65.7,55.6 L65.7,51.6 L74.1,51.6 C74.9,51.6 75.4,52.3 75.5,54.8 C77.8,52.6 81,51.2 84.7,51.2 C88.1,51.2 91.1,52.6 91.1,57.4 L91.1,71.2 C91.1,71.8 91.7,72.4 92.3,72.4 L93.6,72.4 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M165,56.7 L163.8,56.7 C160.2,56.7 158.1,57.5 156.7,58.2 L156.7,72.4 L160.1,72.4 L160.1,76.3 L147,76.3 L147,72.4 L148.6,72.4 C149.2,72.4 149.8,71.7 149.8,71.2 L149.8,57 C149.8,56.5 149.2,55.7 148.6,55.7 L146.8,55.7 L146.8,51.6 L155.2,51.6 C156,51.6 156.5,52.3 156.6,55.2 C158.2,53.2 160.2,51.4 163.4,51.4 C163.9,51.4 164.4,51.5 164.9,51.6 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M120.3,72.6 C119.7,72.6 119.1,71.8 119.1,71.3 L119.1,45.1 C119.1,44.1 118.7,43.5 117.9,43.5 L109,43.5 L109,47.5 L112.1,47.5 L112.1,54.5 C110.5,52.6 108.4,51.3 105,51.3 C100.2,51.3 94.4,55 94.4,64.3 C94.4,73.7 99.8,76.7 104.7,76.7 C108.1,76.7 110.6,75.3 112.2,73.5 C112.4,75.3 112.8,76.3 113.5,76.3 L121.9,76.3 L122,76.3 L122,72.6 L120.3,72.6 L120.3,72.6 Z M112.1,70.6 C110.8,71.8 109.2,72.6 107,72.6 C104.2,72.6 101.4,70.9 101.4,64.1 C101.4,57.8 104.4,55.9 107.5,56 C109.2,56 110.9,56.5 112.1,57.1 L112.1,70.6 L112.1,70.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M52.1,51.2 C44.9,51.2 39.1,56 39.1,64 C39.1,71.9 44.9,76.6 52.1,76.6 C59.3,76.6 65.1,72 65.1,64 C65.1,56.1 59.3,51.2 52.1,51.2 L52.1,51.2 Z M52.1,72.3 C48.7,72.3 46.1,69.7 46.1,64.1 C46.1,58.5 48.7,55.7 52.1,55.7 C55.6,55.7 58.2,58.5 58.1,64.1 C58.1,69.7 55.5,72.3 52.1,72.3 L52.1,72.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M18,9.2 C14.4,9.2 12,10.9 10.1,12.9 L10.1,3 C10.1,2 9.7,1.4 8.9,1.4 L0.3,1.4 L0.3,5.3 L2.1,5.3 C2.7,5.3 3.3,6.1 3.3,6.6 L3.3,34.2 L7.1,34.2 C7.7,34.2 8.7,33.1 9.4,31.8 C10.9,33.4 13,34.6 16.7,34.6 C21.9,34.6 27.3,31.1 27.3,21.6 C27.3,12.3 22.7,9.2 18,9.2 L18,9.2 Z M14.5,30.7 C12.4,30.7 11.1,30.1 10,29.3 L10,15.2 C11.5,14.7 13.2,14.2 14.6,14.2 C17.6,14.2 20.3,15.7 20.3,22.2 C20.3,29.1 17.3,30.7 14.5,30.7 L14.5,30.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M152.9,30.6 C152.2,30.6 151.7,30.1 150.8,29.3 L147.7,26.2 C148.9,23.9 149.7,21.5 150.5,19.1 C150.7,18.3 151.3,17.9 152,17.9 L153.1,17.9 L153.1,14 L143,14 L143,17.9 L145.2,17.9 C144.8,19.3 144.4,20.8 143.7,22.3 L135.9,14.5 C134.3,12.9 133.2,11.5 133.2,9.5 C133.2,7.4 134,5.9 137,5.9 C138.5,5.9 139,6.2 139.8,6.5 L140.6,10 L145.5,10 L145.5,1.5 L139.8,1.5 C139.3,1.3 137.4,1.1 136,1.1 C130,1.1 126,4.4 126,9.6 C126,12.4 126.8,14.2 128.2,16 C124.2,17.7 121.4,20.3 121.5,25.5 C121.5,31.4 125.7,34.9 133.5,34.9 C137.7,34.9 140.9,33.7 143.3,31.8 L146,34.5 L153.3,34.5 L153.3,30.6 L152.9,30.6 L152.9,30.6 Z M134.6,30 C130.6,30 128.9,27.5 128.8,24.3 C128.8,21.7 129.8,20 130.9,18.9 L139.7,28 C138.3,29.2 136.6,30 134.6,30 L134.6,30 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M146,63.3 C146,55 142.2,51.2 134.8,51.2 C127.3,51.2 122.4,56 122.4,64 C122.4,71.8 126.6,76.6 135.2,76.6 C140.4,76.6 143.1,75.4 145.1,74.2 L145.1,69.7 L141.2,69.7 C139.9,71.3 138.9,72.4 135.8,72.4 C131.8,72.4 129.7,70.1 129.4,65.2 L145.9,65.2 C145.9,65 146,64.2 146,63.3 L146,63.3 Z M129.5,61.3 C130,57.1 131.9,55.3 134.8,55.3 C137.6,55.3 138.9,57 139.1,61.3 L129.5,61.3 L129.5,61.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> </g> </g> </svg></a> <div class="center-container"> <div class="nav-links"> <a href="/properties" >PROPERTIES</a> <a href="/journal" class="active">JOURNAL</a> <a target="_blank" href="https://community.brickandwonder.com/login">MEMBERS</a> <a href="/about-us" >ABOUT</a> <a href="/beta" >BETA</a> </div> <div class="title-header"> <h3>6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever</h3> </div> </div> <div class="social-links"> <a target="_blank" href="https://instagram.com/brickandwonder"><i class="fa fa-instagram" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> <a target="_blank" href="https://twitter.com/brickandwonder"><i class="fa fa-twitter" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> <a target="_blank" href="https://www.facebook.com/Brick-and-Wonder-242766292740835/"><i class="fa fa-facebook-square" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> <a target="_blank" href="https://www.pinterest.com/brickandwonder"><i class="fa fa-pinterest" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="page-wrap tan"> <div class="hero short journal" style="background-image: url('/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg')"> </div> <section class="journal-details"> <div class="container"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-12"> <h1>6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever</h1> </div> </div> <div class="meta"> <div class="row"> <div class="details col-6"> <span>BY: <a href="/authors/sam-lubell">SAM LUBELL</a> </span> <span>MAY 3RD, 2017</span> </div> <div class="share col-6"> <script> window.fbAsyncInit = function() { FB.init({ appId : '941157732639664', xfbml : true, version : 'v2.12' }); FB.AppEvents.logPageView(); }; (function(d, s, id){ var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0]; if (d.getElementById(id)) {return;} js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id; js.src = "//connect.facebook.net/en_US/sdk.js"; fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs); }(document, 'script', 'facebook-jssdk')); function postToFeed(description) { var obj = { method: 'share', redirect_uri: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', href: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', link: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', picture: "https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg", description: '', name: '6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever', }; function callback(response) { document.getElementById('msg').innerHTML = "Post ID: " + response['post_id']; } FB.ui(obj, callback); } </script> <div class="social-share"> <a class="fb" onclick='postToFeed("."); return false;' class="social" > <i class="fa fa-facebook"></i> </a> <a href="javascript:void((function()%7Bvar%20e=document.createElement(&apos;script&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;type&apos;,&apos;text/javascript&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;charset&apos;,&apos;UTF-8&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;src&apos;,&apos;https://assets.pinterest.com/js/pinmarklet.js?r=&apos;+Math.random()*99999999);document.body.appendChild(e)%7D)());"> <i class="fa fa-pinterest"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?url=https://brickandwonder.com//journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-twitter"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="mailto:?body=https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-envelope"></i> </a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <p>The inspiration for housing developments as we know them was not pulled out of thin air. Over the years notable residential projects have, for better or worse, shaped the development that’s taken place since. Many have taken on cultish status, endlessly referenced, documented and imitated. They have become architectural rock stars or in come cases, villains. Often they played these roles simultaneously.<br> </p> <p><br> </p> <h3>Forest Hills, Queens, NY, 20th Century</h3> <p>The idea of the Garden City—a self-contained town infused with greenery and surrounded by green belts—was first initiated by Ebenezer Howard in the late 19th Century. It has been passed on as legend for generations. One of the first manifestations of the idea was Forest Hills Gardens, a 175-acre suburb consisting of over 800 freestanding and attached homes and 11 apartments. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted Jr, son of the famed designer of Central Park, the development consisted of gracefully placed English-style brick homes shaded by thick trees and verdant landscaping. The Garden Suburb, with its tree-lined streets, low-density homes, and generous parks and woods, took off at this time. Other examples (among many) include Hampstead Garden Suburb outside London, Llewellyn Park, in northern New Jersey, the Main Line, outside Philadelphia, Coral Gables, outside Miami, and Wyvernwood Garden Apartments, in Los Angeles. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzgxODc1OTk0OV84ZjZmZGJlZDBmX28uanBn?w=1000&s=9aae01dccc51ee58ff2d787cd4a6055a" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzE0MjYyOTQ1MS5qcGc=?w=1000&s=806dfe802c5124d5ac5d6baff50bfe22" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Park La Brea, 1944</h3> <p>After World War II large housing developments sprouted up across the country, responding to pent up demand, generous mortgage terms, and a booming economy and population. One of the first was located in the mid-Wilshire neighborhood. Instigated by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, the plan situated 18 13-story towers and many more cottages within the California landscape. Only about 20 percent of the land was dedicated to buildings, and each unit looks onto park space. Metropolitan Life also developed many of the country’s most important large-scale developments, including Stuyvesant Town in New York, Park Merced in San Francisco, and Park Fairfax in Alexandria, Virginia. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzMwNjAxZDkyMDY4YzdkMjlhYTIwYWUxNjViNzQzMDc4LmpwZw==?w=1000&s=56ce2224cf56ec247f1638ab60749229" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL1NjcmVlbiBTaG90IDIwMTctMDMtMTAgYXQgNC4wMS4yNCBQTS5qcGc=?w=1000&s=2cc8e20b75db6ed91a45a9290ee72829" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Sea Ranch, 1965</h3> <p>Perhaps no housing development is as enchanting as Sea Ranch, a community of Bay Modernist homes perched on a 10 mile stretch of rugged cliffs, about three hours north of San Francisco. Straddling both sides of the Pacific Coast Highway, it extends about a mile inland, creating a linear form consisting of clusters of houses marked by cypress and pine hedgerows that form enclaves of grassy meadows. The tiny town was founded by developer Oceanic California, whose planning director Al Boeke assembled a group of architects, landscape architects and planners to create a place where all buildings recognize and reinforce the natural topography, placed ‘within it, not upon it.’ Lawrence Halprin led the landscape development, while prototype buildings – angular, modern structures clad in vertical wood siding, like barns – were created by Moore, Lyndon, Turnbull, and Whitaker (MLTW), Joseph Esherick, and others. The most famous is the ten-unit Condominium One, Charles Moore’s first major work. The shed-style building, with its mono-pitched roof, comprises intimate spaces containing ‘saddlebags,’ small projections that provide views and contemplative space. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzIzOS1NYWluMS5qcGc=?w=1000&s=3233c6f3bbeebc3fe0befc7b257a0e05" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzM4NDcwX1JvYmluc29uUmVlZi0zMC5qcGc=?w=1000&s=5cd01c786c46069645edda3bc2d03b3b" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Seaside, 1981</h3> <p>Founded by developer Robert Davis on an 80-acre plot along the Florida Gulf Coast, Seaside is the unofficial Mecca for New Urbanism, a design movement dedicated to re-instituting traditional planning and architecture. Seaside’s master plan, devised by Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, intended to invoke the scale and character of an old Southern town, with strict height limits, walkable streets, mid-block footpaths, and vernacular styles of architecture like Victorian, Palladian, Charleston, Antebellum, and Greek Revival. Each home had to have a front porch and a picket fence. As the plan developed, architects like Deborah Berke, Steven Holl Architects, and Machado & Silvetti added more contemporary additions to the town’s commercial fabric. Like Disney’s Celebration, Seaside became a model not just for new urbanism, but for Postmodern developments countrywide. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzE3MDIyMy1zZWFzaWRlLTcwNC0yMDAwLmpwZw==?w=1000&s=7cedaca26a72b252ac5bf4f15babf87e" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL1JTMjk2OF9TZWFzaWRlLVJvb2ZzY2FwZXMtbi1HdWxmLWxwci5qcGc=?w=1000&s=857d9e7922d511857f638b8901ead6dc" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Monterrey Housing, 2009</h3> <p>As our communities continue to densify and increase in cost, we’re grasping unsuccessfully for the next vital housing models. One of the most impactful recent examples is Elemental’s Monterrey Housing, an affordable, state-sponsored development of 70 homes in Santa Catarina, Mexico. The project consists of a continuous three story building with the “home” on the first floor and a two-story duplex above. Its density saves cost while still allowing for flexibility as a family grows or obtains more funds. Rows of these residences surround internal courtyards and are topped by thin, unifying rooflines. Elemental, of course, is helmed by recent Pritzker Prize winner (and Venice Architecture Biennale curator) Alejandro Aravena, and his high profile has helped him put this and other affordable plans on the world stage. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL1JhbWlybyBSYW1pcmV6IC0gbW9udGVycmV5LmpwZw==?w=1000&s=b5d91ec214d5cb9cd9b0123c7cc99c10" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL0VsZW1lbnRhbC5qcGc=?w=1000&s=bc1ead416fd152dedcf09b8887b88c54" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Linked Hybrid, 2009</h3> <p>This stacked, city-in-a-city, located next to the site of the old city wall of Beijing, was designed as an antidote to the country’s walled, privatized housing developments. Consisting of eight residential and hotel towers, the complex’s ground level offers a number of open passages, lined with retail, restaurants, schools, and cinemas for both residents and visitors. Intermediate spaces include public roof gardens, while upper levels are linked via planted sky bridges, spanning penthouses. Green space and large ponds surround the project, making it a green oasis in a sea of concrete. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzIwMTItMzk4NTQuanBn?w=1000&s=31ea08ff5d1ec6db8ab4ed80298006e1" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL19NR185Nzg1LW1lZGEtV0hPUi5qcGc=?w=1000&s=3c45026948d4dae64ba529ad44c1274a" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="tags"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <div class="tag-cloud"> TAGS: <a href="/tags/architecture">ARCHITECTURE, </a><a href="/tags/process">PROCESS</a> </div> <script> window.fbAsyncInit = function() { FB.init({ appId : '941157732639664', xfbml : true, version : 'v2.12' }); FB.AppEvents.logPageView(); }; (function(d, s, id){ var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0]; if (d.getElementById(id)) {return;} js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id; js.src = "//connect.facebook.net/en_US/sdk.js"; fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs); }(document, 'script', 'facebook-jssdk')); function postToFeed(description) { var obj = { method: 'share', redirect_uri: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', href: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', link: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', picture: "https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg", description: '', name: '6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever', }; function callback(response) { document.getElementById('msg').innerHTML = "Post ID: " + response['post_id']; } FB.ui(obj, callback); } </script> <div class="social-share"> <a class="fb" onclick='postToFeed("."); return false;' class="social" > <i class="fa fa-facebook"></i> </a> <a href="javascript:void((function()%7Bvar%20e=document.createElement(&apos;script&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;type&apos;,&apos;text/javascript&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;charset&apos;,&apos;UTF-8&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;src&apos;,&apos;https://assets.pinterest.com/js/pinmarklet.js?r=&apos;+Math.random()*99999999);document.body.appendChild(e)%7D)());"> <i class="fa fa-pinterest"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?url=https://brickandwonder.com//journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-twitter"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="mailto:?body=https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-envelope"></i> </a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </section> </div> <div class="overlay overlay-hugeinc"> <!-- <button type="button" class="overlay-close">Close</button> --> <nav> <ul> <li> <a href="/properties">PROPERTIES</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li class="active"> <a href="/journal">JOURNAL</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li> <a href="https://community.brickandwonder.com/login">MEMBERS</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li> <a href="/about-us">ABOUT</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li> <a href="/beta">BETA</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <ul> </nav> </div> <footer> <div class="container"> <div class="row align-items-end"> <div class="col-md-3 footer-header"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?> <svg viewBox="0 0 165 77" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:sketch="http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch/ns"> <!-- Generator: Sketch 3.5.1 (25234) - http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch --> <title>logo</title> <desc>Created with Sketch.</desc> <defs></defs> <g id="Page-1" stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd" sketch:type="MSPage"> <g id="logo" sketch:type="MSLayerGroup" fill="#EBE9E2"> <path d="M83.4,1.4 L92.1,1.4 C92.9,1.4 93.3,2 93.3,3 L93.3,21.7 L99.5,15.6 C100.3,14.8 100.1,13.7 99.1,13.7 L98.2,13.7 L98.2,9.6 L109.3,9.6 L109.3,13.7 L108,13.7 C107.3,13.7 106.5,14.1 106,14.6 L100.7,19.7 L107.1,29 C107.8,29.9 108.3,30.3 108.9,30.3 L109.4,30.3 L109.4,34.2 L102.7,34.2 L96,24.2 L93.2,26.9 L93.2,30.3 L95.6,30.3 L95.6,34.2 L83.5,34.2 L83.5,30.3 L85.1,30.3 C85.7,30.3 86.3,29.6 86.3,29.1 L86.3,6.6 C86.3,6.1 85.7,5.3 85.1,5.3 L83.3,5.3 L83.3,1.4 L83.4,1.4 L83.4,1.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M73.7,9.2 C77.7,9.2 80.4,9.8 82,10.5 L82,16.1 L77.9,16.1 C77.1,14.4 76,13.6 73.6,13.6 C69.9,13.6 67.6,16.2 67.6,22.1 C67.6,28 69.5,30.4 73.5,30.4 C76.6,30.4 77.8,29 78.8,27.8 L82.1,27.8 L82.1,32.6 C80.3,33.6 77.5,34.7 73.3,34.7 C64.7,34.7 60.5,30 60.5,22.1 C60.6,14.1 65.7,9.2 73.7,9.2 L73.7,9.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M53.4,0.4 C55.5,0.4 57.1,2 57.1,4.1 C57.1,6.2 55.5,7.7 53.4,7.7 C51.3,7.7 49.7,6.1 49.7,4.1 C49.7,2.1 51.3,0.4 53.4,0.4 L53.4,0.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M46.9,9.6 L55.8,9.6 C56.6,9.6 56.9,10.4 56.9,12.2 L56.9,29.2 C56.9,29.8 57.5,30.4 58.1,30.4 L59.9,30.4 L59.9,34.3 L47.1,34.3 L47.1,30.4 L48.9,30.4 C49.5,30.4 50,29.7 50,29.2 L50,15 C50,14.5 49.4,13.7 48.9,13.7 L46.9,13.7 L46.9,9.6 L46.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M27.9,9.6 L36.3,9.6 C37.1,9.6 37.6,10.3 37.7,13.2 C39.3,11.2 41.3,9.4 44.5,9.4 C45,9.4 45.5,9.5 46,9.6 L46,14.7 L44.8,14.7 C41.2,14.7 39.1,15.5 37.7,16.2 L37.7,30.4 L41.1,30.4 L41.1,34.3 L28,34.3 L28,30.4 L29.6,30.4 C30.2,30.4 30.8,29.7 30.8,29.2 L30.8,15 C30.8,14.5 30.2,13.7 29.6,13.7 L27.8,13.7 L27.8,9.6 L27.9,9.6 L27.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M36.6,57.2 L31,76.3 L25.1,76.3 L20.4,60.3 L20.3,60.3 L15.4,76.3 L9.5,76.3 L3.9,57.1 C3.6,56.3 3.1,55.8 2.4,55.8 L1.5,55.8 L1.5,51.6 L12.4,51.6 L12.4,55.7 L10.2,55.7 L13.4,68 L13.5,68 L18.3,51.5 L23.6,51.5 L28.4,68 L28.5,68 L31,58.8 C31.6,56.6 31.4,55.7 29.4,55.7 L28.7,55.7 L28.7,51.6 L39,51.6 L39,55.7 L38.2,55.7 C37.6,55.7 36.9,56.2 36.6,57.2 L36.6,57.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M93.6,76.3 L81.4,76.3 L81.4,72.4 L84.2,72.4 L84.2,59.7 C84.2,57.3 83.3,56.5 81,56.5 C79,56.5 77.2,56.9 75.6,57.4 L75.6,72.3 L78.5,72.3 L78.5,76.2 L65.9,76.2 L65.9,72.3 L67.5,72.3 C68.1,72.3 68.7,71.6 68.7,71.1 L68.7,56.9 C68.7,56.4 68.1,55.6 67.5,55.6 L65.7,55.6 L65.7,51.6 L74.1,51.6 C74.9,51.6 75.4,52.3 75.5,54.8 C77.8,52.6 81,51.2 84.7,51.2 C88.1,51.2 91.1,52.6 91.1,57.4 L91.1,71.2 C91.1,71.8 91.7,72.4 92.3,72.4 L93.6,72.4 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M165,56.7 L163.8,56.7 C160.2,56.7 158.1,57.5 156.7,58.2 L156.7,72.4 L160.1,72.4 L160.1,76.3 L147,76.3 L147,72.4 L148.6,72.4 C149.2,72.4 149.8,71.7 149.8,71.2 L149.8,57 C149.8,56.5 149.2,55.7 148.6,55.7 L146.8,55.7 L146.8,51.6 L155.2,51.6 C156,51.6 156.5,52.3 156.6,55.2 C158.2,53.2 160.2,51.4 163.4,51.4 C163.9,51.4 164.4,51.5 164.9,51.6 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M120.3,72.6 C119.7,72.6 119.1,71.8 119.1,71.3 L119.1,45.1 C119.1,44.1 118.7,43.5 117.9,43.5 L109,43.5 L109,47.5 L112.1,47.5 L112.1,54.5 C110.5,52.6 108.4,51.3 105,51.3 C100.2,51.3 94.4,55 94.4,64.3 C94.4,73.7 99.8,76.7 104.7,76.7 C108.1,76.7 110.6,75.3 112.2,73.5 C112.4,75.3 112.8,76.3 113.5,76.3 L121.9,76.3 L122,76.3 L122,72.6 L120.3,72.6 L120.3,72.6 Z M112.1,70.6 C110.8,71.8 109.2,72.6 107,72.6 C104.2,72.6 101.4,70.9 101.4,64.1 C101.4,57.8 104.4,55.9 107.5,56 C109.2,56 110.9,56.5 112.1,57.1 L112.1,70.6 L112.1,70.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M52.1,51.2 C44.9,51.2 39.1,56 39.1,64 C39.1,71.9 44.9,76.6 52.1,76.6 C59.3,76.6 65.1,72 65.1,64 C65.1,56.1 59.3,51.2 52.1,51.2 L52.1,51.2 Z M52.1,72.3 C48.7,72.3 46.1,69.7 46.1,64.1 C46.1,58.5 48.7,55.7 52.1,55.7 C55.6,55.7 58.2,58.5 58.1,64.1 C58.1,69.7 55.5,72.3 52.1,72.3 L52.1,72.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M18,9.2 C14.4,9.2 12,10.9 10.1,12.9 L10.1,3 C10.1,2 9.7,1.4 8.9,1.4 L0.3,1.4 L0.3,5.3 L2.1,5.3 C2.7,5.3 3.3,6.1 3.3,6.6 L3.3,34.2 L7.1,34.2 C7.7,34.2 8.7,33.1 9.4,31.8 C10.9,33.4 13,34.6 16.7,34.6 C21.9,34.6 27.3,31.1 27.3,21.6 C27.3,12.3 22.7,9.2 18,9.2 L18,9.2 Z M14.5,30.7 C12.4,30.7 11.1,30.1 10,29.3 L10,15.2 C11.5,14.7 13.2,14.2 14.6,14.2 C17.6,14.2 20.3,15.7 20.3,22.2 C20.3,29.1 17.3,30.7 14.5,30.7 L14.5,30.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M152.9,30.6 C152.2,30.6 151.7,30.1 150.8,29.3 L147.7,26.2 C148.9,23.9 149.7,21.5 150.5,19.1 C150.7,18.3 151.3,17.9 152,17.9 L153.1,17.9 L153.1,14 L143,14 L143,17.9 L145.2,17.9 C144.8,19.3 144.4,20.8 143.7,22.3 L135.9,14.5 C134.3,12.9 133.2,11.5 133.2,9.5 C133.2,7.4 134,5.9 137,5.9 C138.5,5.9 139,6.2 139.8,6.5 L140.6,10 L145.5,10 L145.5,1.5 L139.8,1.5 C139.3,1.3 137.4,1.1 136,1.1 C130,1.1 126,4.4 126,9.6 C126,12.4 126.8,14.2 128.2,16 C124.2,17.7 121.4,20.3 121.5,25.5 C121.5,31.4 125.7,34.9 133.5,34.9 C137.7,34.9 140.9,33.7 143.3,31.8 L146,34.5 L153.3,34.5 L153.3,30.6 L152.9,30.6 L152.9,30.6 Z M134.6,30 C130.6,30 128.9,27.5 128.8,24.3 C128.8,21.7 129.8,20 130.9,18.9 L139.7,28 C138.3,29.2 136.6,30 134.6,30 L134.6,30 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M146,63.3 C146,55 142.2,51.2 134.8,51.2 C127.3,51.2 122.4,56 122.4,64 C122.4,71.8 126.6,76.6 135.2,76.6 C140.4,76.6 143.1,75.4 145.1,74.2 L145.1,69.7 L141.2,69.7 C139.9,71.3 138.9,72.4 135.8,72.4 C131.8,72.4 129.7,70.1 129.4,65.2 L145.9,65.2 C145.9,65 146,64.2 146,63.3 L146,63.3 Z M129.5,61.3 C130,57.1 131.9,55.3 134.8,55.3 C137.6,55.3 138.9,57 139.1,61.3 L129.5,61.3 L129.5,61.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> </g> </g> </svg></div> <div class="col-md-3 footer-header">Follow Us</div> <div class="col-md-6 footer-header">Subscribe</div> </div> <div class="row links"> <div class="col-6 col-md-3"> <a href="https://brickandwonder.com/contact">Contact Us</a> <a href="https://brickandwonder.com/beta">Beta</a> <a href="https://brickandwonder.com/privacy-policy">Legal</a> </div> <div class="col-6 col-md-3"> <a href="https://www.facebook.com/Brick-and-Wonder-242766292740835/">Facebook</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/brickandwonder">Twitter</a> <a href="https://instagram.com/brickandwonder">Instagram</a> <a href="https://www.pinterest.com/brickandwonder">Pinterest</a> </div> <div class="col-md-6"> <div class="footer-group signup"> <form action="//langarchitecture.us3.list-manage.com/subscribe/post?u=debb63dba6fc6484e0048cf97&amp;id=0349ef44a6" method="post" id="mc-embedded-subscribe-form" name="mc-embedded-subscribe-form" class="validate email-signup" target="_blank" novalidate> <div class="form-full"> <input class="email" type="email" value="" name="EMAIL" placeholder="Enter your email"/> <input type="submit" class="submit" value="SUBMIT" name="subscribe" id="mc-embedded-subscribe" class="validate submit" target="_blank" novalidate> <div style="position: absolute; left: -5000px;"><input type="text" nname="b_debb63dba6fc6484e0048cf97_0349ef44a6" tabindex="-1" value=""> </div> </div> <div id="mce-responses" class="clear"> <div class="response" id="mce-error-response" style="display:none"></div> <div class="response" id="mce-success-response" style="display:none"></div> </div> <!-- real people should not fill this in and expect good things - do not remove this or risk form bot signups--> </form> <script type='text/javascript' src='//s3.amazonaws.com/downloads.mailchimp.com/js/mc-validate.js'></script><script type='text/javascript'>(function($) {window.fnames = new Array(); window.ftypes = new Array();fnames[0]='EMAIL';ftypes[0]='email';fnames[1]='FNAME';ftypes[1]='text';fnames[2]='LNAME';ftypes[2]='text';}(jQuery));var $mcj = jQuery.noConflict(true); </script> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="container bottom"> <div>&copy; 2018 Brick &amp; Wonder. All Rights Reserved. </div> </div> </footer> <script type="text/javascript" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js"></script> <script src="/site/themes/main/js/main.min.js"></script> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-74832017-1', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> </body> </html> ', 'lockFor' => '0'))
  3. at fopen('/home/deploy/brickandwonder.com/wwwroot/statamic/../static/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever_.html', 'c') in Writer.php line 24
  4. at Writer->write('/home/deploy/brickandwonder.com/wwwroot/statamic/../static/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever_.html', '<!DOCTYPE html> <!--[if lt IE 7]><html class="no-js lt-ie9 lt-ie8 lt-ie7"><![endif]--> <!--[if IE 7]><html class="no-js lt-ie9 lt-ie8" <![endif]--> <!--[if IE 8]><html class="no-js lt-ie9" <![endif]--> <!--[if gt IE 8]><!--> <html class="no-js"> <!--<![endif]--> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1"> <meta name="p:domain_verify" content="0f692d5c691bb1650b47fe04ea53350f"/> <title>6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever</title> <meta name="description" content="The inspiration for housing developments as we know them was not pulled out of thin air. Over the years notable residential projects have, for..."> <meta property="og:title" content="6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever" /> <meta property="og:url" content="https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever" /> <meta property="og:type" content="blog" /> <meta property="og:description" content="The inspiration for housing developments as we know them was not pulled out of thin air. Over the years notable residential projects have, for..." /> <meta property="og:image" content="https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg" /> <meta property="fb:app_id" content="941157732639664" /> <script type="application/ld+json"> { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "BreadcrumbList", "itemListElement": [ { "@type": "ListItem", "position": 1, "item": { "@id": "https://brickandwonder.com/", "name": "Exceptional Real Estate & Design Talent" } },{ "@type": "ListItem", "position": 2, "item": { "@id": "https://brickandwonder.com/journal", "name": "Journal" } },{ "@type": "ListItem", "position": 3, "item": { "@id": "https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever", "name": "6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever", "image": "https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg" } }] } </script> <script type="application/ld+json"> { "@context":"http://schema.org", "@type":"BlogPosting", "name":"6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever", "headline":"6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever", "dateCreated":"May 3rd, 2017", "keywords":"Architecture, Process", "image":"https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg", "author":"Sam Lubell", "datePublished":"2017-05-03", "publisher":"Organization" } </script> <link rel="canonical" href="https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="/site/themes/main/css/main-b7f354f9c9.min.css" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="/site/themes/main/css/wufoo.css"> <script> // https://github.com/morris/typekit-cache !function(e,t,n,a,c,l,m,o,d,f,h,i){c[l]&&(d=e.createElement(t),d[n]=c[l],e[a]("head")[0].appendChild(d),e.documentElement.className+=" wf-cached"),function s(){for(d=e[a](t),f="",h=0;h<d.length;h++)i=d[h][n],i.match(m)&&(f+=i);f&&(c[l]="/**/"+f),setTimeout(s,o+=o)}()}(document,"style","innerHTML","getElementsByTagName",localStorage,"tk",/^@font|^\.tk-/,100); (function(d) { var config = { kitId: 'vib5hdw', scriptTimeout: 3000, async: true }, h=d.documentElement,t=setTimeout(function(){h.className=h.className.replace(/\bwf-loading\b/g,"")+" wf-inactive";},config.scriptTimeout),tk=d.createElement("script"),f=false,s=d.getElementsByTagName("script")[0],a;h.className+=" wf-loading";tk.src='https://use.typekit.net/'+config.kitId+'.js';tk.async=true;tk.onload=tk.onreadystatechange=function(){a=this.readyState;if(f||a&&a!="complete"&&a!="loaded")return;f=true;clearTimeout(t);try{Typekit.load(config)}catch(e){}};s.parentNode.insertBefore(tk,s) })(document); </script> <!-- Facebook Pixel Code --> <script> !function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s){if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod? n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};if(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n; n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version='2.0';n.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0; t.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];s.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window, document,'script','https://connect.facebook.net/en_US/fbevents.js'); fbq('init', '1832634483660033'); // Insert your pixel ID here. fbq('track', 'PageView'); </script> <noscript><img height="1" width="1" style="display:none" src="https://www.facebook.com/tr?id=1832634483660033&ev=PageView&noscript=1" /></noscript> <!-- DO NOT MODIFY --> <!-- End Facebook Pixel Code --> <script async defer src="//assets.pinterest.com/js/pinit.js"></script> <link rel="shortcut icon" type="image/png" href="/site/themes/main/img/favicon.png"> <style> </style> <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.2.1/jquery.min.js"></script> </head> <body class="tan"> <div id="co-registration-trigger"></div> <div class="nav mobile"> <div class="container"> <div class="nav-wrap"> <div id="box"> <ul id="trigger-overlay"> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> </ul> </div> <a id="logo" href="/"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?> <svg viewBox="0 0 165 77" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:sketch="http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch/ns"> <!-- Generator: Sketch 3.5.1 (25234) - http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch --> <title>logo</title> <desc>Created with Sketch.</desc> <defs></defs> <g id="Page-1" stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd" sketch:type="MSPage"> <g id="logo" sketch:type="MSLayerGroup" fill="#EBE9E2"> <path d="M83.4,1.4 L92.1,1.4 C92.9,1.4 93.3,2 93.3,3 L93.3,21.7 L99.5,15.6 C100.3,14.8 100.1,13.7 99.1,13.7 L98.2,13.7 L98.2,9.6 L109.3,9.6 L109.3,13.7 L108,13.7 C107.3,13.7 106.5,14.1 106,14.6 L100.7,19.7 L107.1,29 C107.8,29.9 108.3,30.3 108.9,30.3 L109.4,30.3 L109.4,34.2 L102.7,34.2 L96,24.2 L93.2,26.9 L93.2,30.3 L95.6,30.3 L95.6,34.2 L83.5,34.2 L83.5,30.3 L85.1,30.3 C85.7,30.3 86.3,29.6 86.3,29.1 L86.3,6.6 C86.3,6.1 85.7,5.3 85.1,5.3 L83.3,5.3 L83.3,1.4 L83.4,1.4 L83.4,1.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M73.7,9.2 C77.7,9.2 80.4,9.8 82,10.5 L82,16.1 L77.9,16.1 C77.1,14.4 76,13.6 73.6,13.6 C69.9,13.6 67.6,16.2 67.6,22.1 C67.6,28 69.5,30.4 73.5,30.4 C76.6,30.4 77.8,29 78.8,27.8 L82.1,27.8 L82.1,32.6 C80.3,33.6 77.5,34.7 73.3,34.7 C64.7,34.7 60.5,30 60.5,22.1 C60.6,14.1 65.7,9.2 73.7,9.2 L73.7,9.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M53.4,0.4 C55.5,0.4 57.1,2 57.1,4.1 C57.1,6.2 55.5,7.7 53.4,7.7 C51.3,7.7 49.7,6.1 49.7,4.1 C49.7,2.1 51.3,0.4 53.4,0.4 L53.4,0.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M46.9,9.6 L55.8,9.6 C56.6,9.6 56.9,10.4 56.9,12.2 L56.9,29.2 C56.9,29.8 57.5,30.4 58.1,30.4 L59.9,30.4 L59.9,34.3 L47.1,34.3 L47.1,30.4 L48.9,30.4 C49.5,30.4 50,29.7 50,29.2 L50,15 C50,14.5 49.4,13.7 48.9,13.7 L46.9,13.7 L46.9,9.6 L46.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M27.9,9.6 L36.3,9.6 C37.1,9.6 37.6,10.3 37.7,13.2 C39.3,11.2 41.3,9.4 44.5,9.4 C45,9.4 45.5,9.5 46,9.6 L46,14.7 L44.8,14.7 C41.2,14.7 39.1,15.5 37.7,16.2 L37.7,30.4 L41.1,30.4 L41.1,34.3 L28,34.3 L28,30.4 L29.6,30.4 C30.2,30.4 30.8,29.7 30.8,29.2 L30.8,15 C30.8,14.5 30.2,13.7 29.6,13.7 L27.8,13.7 L27.8,9.6 L27.9,9.6 L27.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M36.6,57.2 L31,76.3 L25.1,76.3 L20.4,60.3 L20.3,60.3 L15.4,76.3 L9.5,76.3 L3.9,57.1 C3.6,56.3 3.1,55.8 2.4,55.8 L1.5,55.8 L1.5,51.6 L12.4,51.6 L12.4,55.7 L10.2,55.7 L13.4,68 L13.5,68 L18.3,51.5 L23.6,51.5 L28.4,68 L28.5,68 L31,58.8 C31.6,56.6 31.4,55.7 29.4,55.7 L28.7,55.7 L28.7,51.6 L39,51.6 L39,55.7 L38.2,55.7 C37.6,55.7 36.9,56.2 36.6,57.2 L36.6,57.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M93.6,76.3 L81.4,76.3 L81.4,72.4 L84.2,72.4 L84.2,59.7 C84.2,57.3 83.3,56.5 81,56.5 C79,56.5 77.2,56.9 75.6,57.4 L75.6,72.3 L78.5,72.3 L78.5,76.2 L65.9,76.2 L65.9,72.3 L67.5,72.3 C68.1,72.3 68.7,71.6 68.7,71.1 L68.7,56.9 C68.7,56.4 68.1,55.6 67.5,55.6 L65.7,55.6 L65.7,51.6 L74.1,51.6 C74.9,51.6 75.4,52.3 75.5,54.8 C77.8,52.6 81,51.2 84.7,51.2 C88.1,51.2 91.1,52.6 91.1,57.4 L91.1,71.2 C91.1,71.8 91.7,72.4 92.3,72.4 L93.6,72.4 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M165,56.7 L163.8,56.7 C160.2,56.7 158.1,57.5 156.7,58.2 L156.7,72.4 L160.1,72.4 L160.1,76.3 L147,76.3 L147,72.4 L148.6,72.4 C149.2,72.4 149.8,71.7 149.8,71.2 L149.8,57 C149.8,56.5 149.2,55.7 148.6,55.7 L146.8,55.7 L146.8,51.6 L155.2,51.6 C156,51.6 156.5,52.3 156.6,55.2 C158.2,53.2 160.2,51.4 163.4,51.4 C163.9,51.4 164.4,51.5 164.9,51.6 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M120.3,72.6 C119.7,72.6 119.1,71.8 119.1,71.3 L119.1,45.1 C119.1,44.1 118.7,43.5 117.9,43.5 L109,43.5 L109,47.5 L112.1,47.5 L112.1,54.5 C110.5,52.6 108.4,51.3 105,51.3 C100.2,51.3 94.4,55 94.4,64.3 C94.4,73.7 99.8,76.7 104.7,76.7 C108.1,76.7 110.6,75.3 112.2,73.5 C112.4,75.3 112.8,76.3 113.5,76.3 L121.9,76.3 L122,76.3 L122,72.6 L120.3,72.6 L120.3,72.6 Z M112.1,70.6 C110.8,71.8 109.2,72.6 107,72.6 C104.2,72.6 101.4,70.9 101.4,64.1 C101.4,57.8 104.4,55.9 107.5,56 C109.2,56 110.9,56.5 112.1,57.1 L112.1,70.6 L112.1,70.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M52.1,51.2 C44.9,51.2 39.1,56 39.1,64 C39.1,71.9 44.9,76.6 52.1,76.6 C59.3,76.6 65.1,72 65.1,64 C65.1,56.1 59.3,51.2 52.1,51.2 L52.1,51.2 Z M52.1,72.3 C48.7,72.3 46.1,69.7 46.1,64.1 C46.1,58.5 48.7,55.7 52.1,55.7 C55.6,55.7 58.2,58.5 58.1,64.1 C58.1,69.7 55.5,72.3 52.1,72.3 L52.1,72.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M18,9.2 C14.4,9.2 12,10.9 10.1,12.9 L10.1,3 C10.1,2 9.7,1.4 8.9,1.4 L0.3,1.4 L0.3,5.3 L2.1,5.3 C2.7,5.3 3.3,6.1 3.3,6.6 L3.3,34.2 L7.1,34.2 C7.7,34.2 8.7,33.1 9.4,31.8 C10.9,33.4 13,34.6 16.7,34.6 C21.9,34.6 27.3,31.1 27.3,21.6 C27.3,12.3 22.7,9.2 18,9.2 L18,9.2 Z M14.5,30.7 C12.4,30.7 11.1,30.1 10,29.3 L10,15.2 C11.5,14.7 13.2,14.2 14.6,14.2 C17.6,14.2 20.3,15.7 20.3,22.2 C20.3,29.1 17.3,30.7 14.5,30.7 L14.5,30.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M152.9,30.6 C152.2,30.6 151.7,30.1 150.8,29.3 L147.7,26.2 C148.9,23.9 149.7,21.5 150.5,19.1 C150.7,18.3 151.3,17.9 152,17.9 L153.1,17.9 L153.1,14 L143,14 L143,17.9 L145.2,17.9 C144.8,19.3 144.4,20.8 143.7,22.3 L135.9,14.5 C134.3,12.9 133.2,11.5 133.2,9.5 C133.2,7.4 134,5.9 137,5.9 C138.5,5.9 139,6.2 139.8,6.5 L140.6,10 L145.5,10 L145.5,1.5 L139.8,1.5 C139.3,1.3 137.4,1.1 136,1.1 C130,1.1 126,4.4 126,9.6 C126,12.4 126.8,14.2 128.2,16 C124.2,17.7 121.4,20.3 121.5,25.5 C121.5,31.4 125.7,34.9 133.5,34.9 C137.7,34.9 140.9,33.7 143.3,31.8 L146,34.5 L153.3,34.5 L153.3,30.6 L152.9,30.6 L152.9,30.6 Z M134.6,30 C130.6,30 128.9,27.5 128.8,24.3 C128.8,21.7 129.8,20 130.9,18.9 L139.7,28 C138.3,29.2 136.6,30 134.6,30 L134.6,30 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M146,63.3 C146,55 142.2,51.2 134.8,51.2 C127.3,51.2 122.4,56 122.4,64 C122.4,71.8 126.6,76.6 135.2,76.6 C140.4,76.6 143.1,75.4 145.1,74.2 L145.1,69.7 L141.2,69.7 C139.9,71.3 138.9,72.4 135.8,72.4 C131.8,72.4 129.7,70.1 129.4,65.2 L145.9,65.2 C145.9,65 146,64.2 146,63.3 L146,63.3 Z M129.5,61.3 C130,57.1 131.9,55.3 134.8,55.3 C137.6,55.3 138.9,57 139.1,61.3 L129.5,61.3 L129.5,61.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> </g> </g> </svg></a> <div class="box-spacer"></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="nav desktop title"> <div class="container"> <div class="nav-wrap"> <a id="logo" href="/"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?> <svg viewBox="0 0 165 77" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:sketch="http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch/ns"> <!-- Generator: Sketch 3.5.1 (25234) - http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch --> <title>logo</title> <desc>Created with Sketch.</desc> <defs></defs> <g id="Page-1" stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd" sketch:type="MSPage"> <g id="logo" sketch:type="MSLayerGroup" fill="#EBE9E2"> <path d="M83.4,1.4 L92.1,1.4 C92.9,1.4 93.3,2 93.3,3 L93.3,21.7 L99.5,15.6 C100.3,14.8 100.1,13.7 99.1,13.7 L98.2,13.7 L98.2,9.6 L109.3,9.6 L109.3,13.7 L108,13.7 C107.3,13.7 106.5,14.1 106,14.6 L100.7,19.7 L107.1,29 C107.8,29.9 108.3,30.3 108.9,30.3 L109.4,30.3 L109.4,34.2 L102.7,34.2 L96,24.2 L93.2,26.9 L93.2,30.3 L95.6,30.3 L95.6,34.2 L83.5,34.2 L83.5,30.3 L85.1,30.3 C85.7,30.3 86.3,29.6 86.3,29.1 L86.3,6.6 C86.3,6.1 85.7,5.3 85.1,5.3 L83.3,5.3 L83.3,1.4 L83.4,1.4 L83.4,1.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M73.7,9.2 C77.7,9.2 80.4,9.8 82,10.5 L82,16.1 L77.9,16.1 C77.1,14.4 76,13.6 73.6,13.6 C69.9,13.6 67.6,16.2 67.6,22.1 C67.6,28 69.5,30.4 73.5,30.4 C76.6,30.4 77.8,29 78.8,27.8 L82.1,27.8 L82.1,32.6 C80.3,33.6 77.5,34.7 73.3,34.7 C64.7,34.7 60.5,30 60.5,22.1 C60.6,14.1 65.7,9.2 73.7,9.2 L73.7,9.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M53.4,0.4 C55.5,0.4 57.1,2 57.1,4.1 C57.1,6.2 55.5,7.7 53.4,7.7 C51.3,7.7 49.7,6.1 49.7,4.1 C49.7,2.1 51.3,0.4 53.4,0.4 L53.4,0.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M46.9,9.6 L55.8,9.6 C56.6,9.6 56.9,10.4 56.9,12.2 L56.9,29.2 C56.9,29.8 57.5,30.4 58.1,30.4 L59.9,30.4 L59.9,34.3 L47.1,34.3 L47.1,30.4 L48.9,30.4 C49.5,30.4 50,29.7 50,29.2 L50,15 C50,14.5 49.4,13.7 48.9,13.7 L46.9,13.7 L46.9,9.6 L46.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M27.9,9.6 L36.3,9.6 C37.1,9.6 37.6,10.3 37.7,13.2 C39.3,11.2 41.3,9.4 44.5,9.4 C45,9.4 45.5,9.5 46,9.6 L46,14.7 L44.8,14.7 C41.2,14.7 39.1,15.5 37.7,16.2 L37.7,30.4 L41.1,30.4 L41.1,34.3 L28,34.3 L28,30.4 L29.6,30.4 C30.2,30.4 30.8,29.7 30.8,29.2 L30.8,15 C30.8,14.5 30.2,13.7 29.6,13.7 L27.8,13.7 L27.8,9.6 L27.9,9.6 L27.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M36.6,57.2 L31,76.3 L25.1,76.3 L20.4,60.3 L20.3,60.3 L15.4,76.3 L9.5,76.3 L3.9,57.1 C3.6,56.3 3.1,55.8 2.4,55.8 L1.5,55.8 L1.5,51.6 L12.4,51.6 L12.4,55.7 L10.2,55.7 L13.4,68 L13.5,68 L18.3,51.5 L23.6,51.5 L28.4,68 L28.5,68 L31,58.8 C31.6,56.6 31.4,55.7 29.4,55.7 L28.7,55.7 L28.7,51.6 L39,51.6 L39,55.7 L38.2,55.7 C37.6,55.7 36.9,56.2 36.6,57.2 L36.6,57.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M93.6,76.3 L81.4,76.3 L81.4,72.4 L84.2,72.4 L84.2,59.7 C84.2,57.3 83.3,56.5 81,56.5 C79,56.5 77.2,56.9 75.6,57.4 L75.6,72.3 L78.5,72.3 L78.5,76.2 L65.9,76.2 L65.9,72.3 L67.5,72.3 C68.1,72.3 68.7,71.6 68.7,71.1 L68.7,56.9 C68.7,56.4 68.1,55.6 67.5,55.6 L65.7,55.6 L65.7,51.6 L74.1,51.6 C74.9,51.6 75.4,52.3 75.5,54.8 C77.8,52.6 81,51.2 84.7,51.2 C88.1,51.2 91.1,52.6 91.1,57.4 L91.1,71.2 C91.1,71.8 91.7,72.4 92.3,72.4 L93.6,72.4 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M165,56.7 L163.8,56.7 C160.2,56.7 158.1,57.5 156.7,58.2 L156.7,72.4 L160.1,72.4 L160.1,76.3 L147,76.3 L147,72.4 L148.6,72.4 C149.2,72.4 149.8,71.7 149.8,71.2 L149.8,57 C149.8,56.5 149.2,55.7 148.6,55.7 L146.8,55.7 L146.8,51.6 L155.2,51.6 C156,51.6 156.5,52.3 156.6,55.2 C158.2,53.2 160.2,51.4 163.4,51.4 C163.9,51.4 164.4,51.5 164.9,51.6 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M120.3,72.6 C119.7,72.6 119.1,71.8 119.1,71.3 L119.1,45.1 C119.1,44.1 118.7,43.5 117.9,43.5 L109,43.5 L109,47.5 L112.1,47.5 L112.1,54.5 C110.5,52.6 108.4,51.3 105,51.3 C100.2,51.3 94.4,55 94.4,64.3 C94.4,73.7 99.8,76.7 104.7,76.7 C108.1,76.7 110.6,75.3 112.2,73.5 C112.4,75.3 112.8,76.3 113.5,76.3 L121.9,76.3 L122,76.3 L122,72.6 L120.3,72.6 L120.3,72.6 Z M112.1,70.6 C110.8,71.8 109.2,72.6 107,72.6 C104.2,72.6 101.4,70.9 101.4,64.1 C101.4,57.8 104.4,55.9 107.5,56 C109.2,56 110.9,56.5 112.1,57.1 L112.1,70.6 L112.1,70.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M52.1,51.2 C44.9,51.2 39.1,56 39.1,64 C39.1,71.9 44.9,76.6 52.1,76.6 C59.3,76.6 65.1,72 65.1,64 C65.1,56.1 59.3,51.2 52.1,51.2 L52.1,51.2 Z M52.1,72.3 C48.7,72.3 46.1,69.7 46.1,64.1 C46.1,58.5 48.7,55.7 52.1,55.7 C55.6,55.7 58.2,58.5 58.1,64.1 C58.1,69.7 55.5,72.3 52.1,72.3 L52.1,72.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M18,9.2 C14.4,9.2 12,10.9 10.1,12.9 L10.1,3 C10.1,2 9.7,1.4 8.9,1.4 L0.3,1.4 L0.3,5.3 L2.1,5.3 C2.7,5.3 3.3,6.1 3.3,6.6 L3.3,34.2 L7.1,34.2 C7.7,34.2 8.7,33.1 9.4,31.8 C10.9,33.4 13,34.6 16.7,34.6 C21.9,34.6 27.3,31.1 27.3,21.6 C27.3,12.3 22.7,9.2 18,9.2 L18,9.2 Z M14.5,30.7 C12.4,30.7 11.1,30.1 10,29.3 L10,15.2 C11.5,14.7 13.2,14.2 14.6,14.2 C17.6,14.2 20.3,15.7 20.3,22.2 C20.3,29.1 17.3,30.7 14.5,30.7 L14.5,30.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M152.9,30.6 C152.2,30.6 151.7,30.1 150.8,29.3 L147.7,26.2 C148.9,23.9 149.7,21.5 150.5,19.1 C150.7,18.3 151.3,17.9 152,17.9 L153.1,17.9 L153.1,14 L143,14 L143,17.9 L145.2,17.9 C144.8,19.3 144.4,20.8 143.7,22.3 L135.9,14.5 C134.3,12.9 133.2,11.5 133.2,9.5 C133.2,7.4 134,5.9 137,5.9 C138.5,5.9 139,6.2 139.8,6.5 L140.6,10 L145.5,10 L145.5,1.5 L139.8,1.5 C139.3,1.3 137.4,1.1 136,1.1 C130,1.1 126,4.4 126,9.6 C126,12.4 126.8,14.2 128.2,16 C124.2,17.7 121.4,20.3 121.5,25.5 C121.5,31.4 125.7,34.9 133.5,34.9 C137.7,34.9 140.9,33.7 143.3,31.8 L146,34.5 L153.3,34.5 L153.3,30.6 L152.9,30.6 L152.9,30.6 Z M134.6,30 C130.6,30 128.9,27.5 128.8,24.3 C128.8,21.7 129.8,20 130.9,18.9 L139.7,28 C138.3,29.2 136.6,30 134.6,30 L134.6,30 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M146,63.3 C146,55 142.2,51.2 134.8,51.2 C127.3,51.2 122.4,56 122.4,64 C122.4,71.8 126.6,76.6 135.2,76.6 C140.4,76.6 143.1,75.4 145.1,74.2 L145.1,69.7 L141.2,69.7 C139.9,71.3 138.9,72.4 135.8,72.4 C131.8,72.4 129.7,70.1 129.4,65.2 L145.9,65.2 C145.9,65 146,64.2 146,63.3 L146,63.3 Z M129.5,61.3 C130,57.1 131.9,55.3 134.8,55.3 C137.6,55.3 138.9,57 139.1,61.3 L129.5,61.3 L129.5,61.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> </g> </g> </svg></a> <div class="center-container"> <div class="nav-links"> <a href="/properties" >PROPERTIES</a> <a href="/journal" class="active">JOURNAL</a> <a target="_blank" href="https://community.brickandwonder.com/login">MEMBERS</a> <a href="/about-us" >ABOUT</a> <a href="/beta" >BETA</a> </div> <div class="title-header"> <h3>6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever</h3> </div> </div> <div class="social-links"> <a target="_blank" href="https://instagram.com/brickandwonder"><i class="fa fa-instagram" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> <a target="_blank" href="https://twitter.com/brickandwonder"><i class="fa fa-twitter" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> <a target="_blank" href="https://www.facebook.com/Brick-and-Wonder-242766292740835/"><i class="fa fa-facebook-square" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> <a target="_blank" href="https://www.pinterest.com/brickandwonder"><i class="fa fa-pinterest" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="page-wrap tan"> <div class="hero short journal" style="background-image: url('/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg')"> </div> <section class="journal-details"> <div class="container"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-12"> <h1>6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever</h1> </div> </div> <div class="meta"> <div class="row"> <div class="details col-6"> <span>BY: <a href="/authors/sam-lubell">SAM LUBELL</a> </span> <span>MAY 3RD, 2017</span> </div> <div class="share col-6"> <script> window.fbAsyncInit = function() { FB.init({ appId : '941157732639664', xfbml : true, version : 'v2.12' }); FB.AppEvents.logPageView(); }; (function(d, s, id){ var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0]; if (d.getElementById(id)) {return;} js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id; js.src = "//connect.facebook.net/en_US/sdk.js"; fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs); }(document, 'script', 'facebook-jssdk')); function postToFeed(description) { var obj = { method: 'share', redirect_uri: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', href: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', link: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', picture: "https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg", description: '', name: '6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever', }; function callback(response) { document.getElementById('msg').innerHTML = "Post ID: " + response['post_id']; } FB.ui(obj, callback); } </script> <div class="social-share"> <a class="fb" onclick='postToFeed("."); return false;' class="social" > <i class="fa fa-facebook"></i> </a> <a href="javascript:void((function()%7Bvar%20e=document.createElement(&apos;script&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;type&apos;,&apos;text/javascript&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;charset&apos;,&apos;UTF-8&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;src&apos;,&apos;https://assets.pinterest.com/js/pinmarklet.js?r=&apos;+Math.random()*99999999);document.body.appendChild(e)%7D)());"> <i class="fa fa-pinterest"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?url=https://brickandwonder.com//journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-twitter"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="mailto:?body=https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-envelope"></i> </a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <p>The inspiration for housing developments as we know them was not pulled out of thin air. Over the years notable residential projects have, for better or worse, shaped the development that’s taken place since. Many have taken on cultish status, endlessly referenced, documented and imitated. They have become architectural rock stars or in come cases, villains. Often they played these roles simultaneously.<br> </p> <p><br> </p> <h3>Forest Hills, Queens, NY, 20th Century</h3> <p>The idea of the Garden City—a self-contained town infused with greenery and surrounded by green belts—was first initiated by Ebenezer Howard in the late 19th Century. It has been passed on as legend for generations. One of the first manifestations of the idea was Forest Hills Gardens, a 175-acre suburb consisting of over 800 freestanding and attached homes and 11 apartments. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted Jr, son of the famed designer of Central Park, the development consisted of gracefully placed English-style brick homes shaded by thick trees and verdant landscaping. The Garden Suburb, with its tree-lined streets, low-density homes, and generous parks and woods, took off at this time. Other examples (among many) include Hampstead Garden Suburb outside London, Llewellyn Park, in northern New Jersey, the Main Line, outside Philadelphia, Coral Gables, outside Miami, and Wyvernwood Garden Apartments, in Los Angeles. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzgxODc1OTk0OV84ZjZmZGJlZDBmX28uanBn?w=1000&s=9aae01dccc51ee58ff2d787cd4a6055a" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzE0MjYyOTQ1MS5qcGc=?w=1000&s=806dfe802c5124d5ac5d6baff50bfe22" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Park La Brea, 1944</h3> <p>After World War II large housing developments sprouted up across the country, responding to pent up demand, generous mortgage terms, and a booming economy and population. One of the first was located in the mid-Wilshire neighborhood. Instigated by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, the plan situated 18 13-story towers and many more cottages within the California landscape. Only about 20 percent of the land was dedicated to buildings, and each unit looks onto park space. Metropolitan Life also developed many of the country’s most important large-scale developments, including Stuyvesant Town in New York, Park Merced in San Francisco, and Park Fairfax in Alexandria, Virginia. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzMwNjAxZDkyMDY4YzdkMjlhYTIwYWUxNjViNzQzMDc4LmpwZw==?w=1000&s=56ce2224cf56ec247f1638ab60749229" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL1NjcmVlbiBTaG90IDIwMTctMDMtMTAgYXQgNC4wMS4yNCBQTS5qcGc=?w=1000&s=2cc8e20b75db6ed91a45a9290ee72829" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Sea Ranch, 1965</h3> <p>Perhaps no housing development is as enchanting as Sea Ranch, a community of Bay Modernist homes perched on a 10 mile stretch of rugged cliffs, about three hours north of San Francisco. Straddling both sides of the Pacific Coast Highway, it extends about a mile inland, creating a linear form consisting of clusters of houses marked by cypress and pine hedgerows that form enclaves of grassy meadows. The tiny town was founded by developer Oceanic California, whose planning director Al Boeke assembled a group of architects, landscape architects and planners to create a place where all buildings recognize and reinforce the natural topography, placed ‘within it, not upon it.’ Lawrence Halprin led the landscape development, while prototype buildings – angular, modern structures clad in vertical wood siding, like barns – were created by Moore, Lyndon, Turnbull, and Whitaker (MLTW), Joseph Esherick, and others. The most famous is the ten-unit Condominium One, Charles Moore’s first major work. The shed-style building, with its mono-pitched roof, comprises intimate spaces containing ‘saddlebags,’ small projections that provide views and contemplative space. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzIzOS1NYWluMS5qcGc=?w=1000&s=3233c6f3bbeebc3fe0befc7b257a0e05" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzM4NDcwX1JvYmluc29uUmVlZi0zMC5qcGc=?w=1000&s=5cd01c786c46069645edda3bc2d03b3b" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Seaside, 1981</h3> <p>Founded by developer Robert Davis on an 80-acre plot along the Florida Gulf Coast, Seaside is the unofficial Mecca for New Urbanism, a design movement dedicated to re-instituting traditional planning and architecture. Seaside’s master plan, devised by Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, intended to invoke the scale and character of an old Southern town, with strict height limits, walkable streets, mid-block footpaths, and vernacular styles of architecture like Victorian, Palladian, Charleston, Antebellum, and Greek Revival. Each home had to have a front porch and a picket fence. As the plan developed, architects like Deborah Berke, Steven Holl Architects, and Machado & Silvetti added more contemporary additions to the town’s commercial fabric. Like Disney’s Celebration, Seaside became a model not just for new urbanism, but for Postmodern developments countrywide. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzE3MDIyMy1zZWFzaWRlLTcwNC0yMDAwLmpwZw==?w=1000&s=7cedaca26a72b252ac5bf4f15babf87e" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL1JTMjk2OF9TZWFzaWRlLVJvb2ZzY2FwZXMtbi1HdWxmLWxwci5qcGc=?w=1000&s=857d9e7922d511857f638b8901ead6dc" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Monterrey Housing, 2009</h3> <p>As our communities continue to densify and increase in cost, we’re grasping unsuccessfully for the next vital housing models. One of the most impactful recent examples is Elemental’s Monterrey Housing, an affordable, state-sponsored development of 70 homes in Santa Catarina, Mexico. The project consists of a continuous three story building with the “home” on the first floor and a two-story duplex above. Its density saves cost while still allowing for flexibility as a family grows or obtains more funds. Rows of these residences surround internal courtyards and are topped by thin, unifying rooflines. Elemental, of course, is helmed by recent Pritzker Prize winner (and Venice Architecture Biennale curator) Alejandro Aravena, and his high profile has helped him put this and other affordable plans on the world stage. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL1JhbWlybyBSYW1pcmV6IC0gbW9udGVycmV5LmpwZw==?w=1000&s=b5d91ec214d5cb9cd9b0123c7cc99c10" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL0VsZW1lbnRhbC5qcGc=?w=1000&s=bc1ead416fd152dedcf09b8887b88c54" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Linked Hybrid, 2009</h3> <p>This stacked, city-in-a-city, located next to the site of the old city wall of Beijing, was designed as an antidote to the country’s walled, privatized housing developments. Consisting of eight residential and hotel towers, the complex’s ground level offers a number of open passages, lined with retail, restaurants, schools, and cinemas for both residents and visitors. Intermediate spaces include public roof gardens, while upper levels are linked via planted sky bridges, spanning penthouses. Green space and large ponds surround the project, making it a green oasis in a sea of concrete. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzIwMTItMzk4NTQuanBn?w=1000&s=31ea08ff5d1ec6db8ab4ed80298006e1" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL19NR185Nzg1LW1lZGEtV0hPUi5qcGc=?w=1000&s=3c45026948d4dae64ba529ad44c1274a" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="tags"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <div class="tag-cloud"> TAGS: <a href="/tags/architecture">ARCHITECTURE, </a><a href="/tags/process">PROCESS</a> </div> <script> window.fbAsyncInit = function() { FB.init({ appId : '941157732639664', xfbml : true, version : 'v2.12' }); FB.AppEvents.logPageView(); }; (function(d, s, id){ var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0]; if (d.getElementById(id)) {return;} js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id; js.src = "//connect.facebook.net/en_US/sdk.js"; fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs); }(document, 'script', 'facebook-jssdk')); function postToFeed(description) { var obj = { method: 'share', redirect_uri: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', href: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', link: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', picture: "https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg", description: '', name: '6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever', }; function callback(response) { document.getElementById('msg').innerHTML = "Post ID: " + response['post_id']; } FB.ui(obj, callback); } </script> <div class="social-share"> <a class="fb" onclick='postToFeed("."); return false;' class="social" > <i class="fa fa-facebook"></i> </a> <a href="javascript:void((function()%7Bvar%20e=document.createElement(&apos;script&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;type&apos;,&apos;text/javascript&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;charset&apos;,&apos;UTF-8&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;src&apos;,&apos;https://assets.pinterest.com/js/pinmarklet.js?r=&apos;+Math.random()*99999999);document.body.appendChild(e)%7D)());"> <i class="fa fa-pinterest"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?url=https://brickandwonder.com//journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-twitter"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="mailto:?body=https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-envelope"></i> </a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </section> </div> <div class="overlay overlay-hugeinc"> <!-- <button type="button" class="overlay-close">Close</button> --> <nav> <ul> <li> <a href="/properties">PROPERTIES</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li class="active"> <a href="/journal">JOURNAL</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li> <a href="https://community.brickandwonder.com/login">MEMBERS</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li> <a href="/about-us">ABOUT</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li> <a href="/beta">BETA</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <ul> </nav> </div> <footer> <div class="container"> <div class="row align-items-end"> <div class="col-md-3 footer-header"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?> <svg viewBox="0 0 165 77" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:sketch="http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch/ns"> <!-- Generator: Sketch 3.5.1 (25234) - http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch --> <title>logo</title> <desc>Created with Sketch.</desc> <defs></defs> <g id="Page-1" stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd" sketch:type="MSPage"> <g id="logo" sketch:type="MSLayerGroup" fill="#EBE9E2"> <path d="M83.4,1.4 L92.1,1.4 C92.9,1.4 93.3,2 93.3,3 L93.3,21.7 L99.5,15.6 C100.3,14.8 100.1,13.7 99.1,13.7 L98.2,13.7 L98.2,9.6 L109.3,9.6 L109.3,13.7 L108,13.7 C107.3,13.7 106.5,14.1 106,14.6 L100.7,19.7 L107.1,29 C107.8,29.9 108.3,30.3 108.9,30.3 L109.4,30.3 L109.4,34.2 L102.7,34.2 L96,24.2 L93.2,26.9 L93.2,30.3 L95.6,30.3 L95.6,34.2 L83.5,34.2 L83.5,30.3 L85.1,30.3 C85.7,30.3 86.3,29.6 86.3,29.1 L86.3,6.6 C86.3,6.1 85.7,5.3 85.1,5.3 L83.3,5.3 L83.3,1.4 L83.4,1.4 L83.4,1.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M73.7,9.2 C77.7,9.2 80.4,9.8 82,10.5 L82,16.1 L77.9,16.1 C77.1,14.4 76,13.6 73.6,13.6 C69.9,13.6 67.6,16.2 67.6,22.1 C67.6,28 69.5,30.4 73.5,30.4 C76.6,30.4 77.8,29 78.8,27.8 L82.1,27.8 L82.1,32.6 C80.3,33.6 77.5,34.7 73.3,34.7 C64.7,34.7 60.5,30 60.5,22.1 C60.6,14.1 65.7,9.2 73.7,9.2 L73.7,9.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M53.4,0.4 C55.5,0.4 57.1,2 57.1,4.1 C57.1,6.2 55.5,7.7 53.4,7.7 C51.3,7.7 49.7,6.1 49.7,4.1 C49.7,2.1 51.3,0.4 53.4,0.4 L53.4,0.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M46.9,9.6 L55.8,9.6 C56.6,9.6 56.9,10.4 56.9,12.2 L56.9,29.2 C56.9,29.8 57.5,30.4 58.1,30.4 L59.9,30.4 L59.9,34.3 L47.1,34.3 L47.1,30.4 L48.9,30.4 C49.5,30.4 50,29.7 50,29.2 L50,15 C50,14.5 49.4,13.7 48.9,13.7 L46.9,13.7 L46.9,9.6 L46.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M27.9,9.6 L36.3,9.6 C37.1,9.6 37.6,10.3 37.7,13.2 C39.3,11.2 41.3,9.4 44.5,9.4 C45,9.4 45.5,9.5 46,9.6 L46,14.7 L44.8,14.7 C41.2,14.7 39.1,15.5 37.7,16.2 L37.7,30.4 L41.1,30.4 L41.1,34.3 L28,34.3 L28,30.4 L29.6,30.4 C30.2,30.4 30.8,29.7 30.8,29.2 L30.8,15 C30.8,14.5 30.2,13.7 29.6,13.7 L27.8,13.7 L27.8,9.6 L27.9,9.6 L27.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M36.6,57.2 L31,76.3 L25.1,76.3 L20.4,60.3 L20.3,60.3 L15.4,76.3 L9.5,76.3 L3.9,57.1 C3.6,56.3 3.1,55.8 2.4,55.8 L1.5,55.8 L1.5,51.6 L12.4,51.6 L12.4,55.7 L10.2,55.7 L13.4,68 L13.5,68 L18.3,51.5 L23.6,51.5 L28.4,68 L28.5,68 L31,58.8 C31.6,56.6 31.4,55.7 29.4,55.7 L28.7,55.7 L28.7,51.6 L39,51.6 L39,55.7 L38.2,55.7 C37.6,55.7 36.9,56.2 36.6,57.2 L36.6,57.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M93.6,76.3 L81.4,76.3 L81.4,72.4 L84.2,72.4 L84.2,59.7 C84.2,57.3 83.3,56.5 81,56.5 C79,56.5 77.2,56.9 75.6,57.4 L75.6,72.3 L78.5,72.3 L78.5,76.2 L65.9,76.2 L65.9,72.3 L67.5,72.3 C68.1,72.3 68.7,71.6 68.7,71.1 L68.7,56.9 C68.7,56.4 68.1,55.6 67.5,55.6 L65.7,55.6 L65.7,51.6 L74.1,51.6 C74.9,51.6 75.4,52.3 75.5,54.8 C77.8,52.6 81,51.2 84.7,51.2 C88.1,51.2 91.1,52.6 91.1,57.4 L91.1,71.2 C91.1,71.8 91.7,72.4 92.3,72.4 L93.6,72.4 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M165,56.7 L163.8,56.7 C160.2,56.7 158.1,57.5 156.7,58.2 L156.7,72.4 L160.1,72.4 L160.1,76.3 L147,76.3 L147,72.4 L148.6,72.4 C149.2,72.4 149.8,71.7 149.8,71.2 L149.8,57 C149.8,56.5 149.2,55.7 148.6,55.7 L146.8,55.7 L146.8,51.6 L155.2,51.6 C156,51.6 156.5,52.3 156.6,55.2 C158.2,53.2 160.2,51.4 163.4,51.4 C163.9,51.4 164.4,51.5 164.9,51.6 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M120.3,72.6 C119.7,72.6 119.1,71.8 119.1,71.3 L119.1,45.1 C119.1,44.1 118.7,43.5 117.9,43.5 L109,43.5 L109,47.5 L112.1,47.5 L112.1,54.5 C110.5,52.6 108.4,51.3 105,51.3 C100.2,51.3 94.4,55 94.4,64.3 C94.4,73.7 99.8,76.7 104.7,76.7 C108.1,76.7 110.6,75.3 112.2,73.5 C112.4,75.3 112.8,76.3 113.5,76.3 L121.9,76.3 L122,76.3 L122,72.6 L120.3,72.6 L120.3,72.6 Z M112.1,70.6 C110.8,71.8 109.2,72.6 107,72.6 C104.2,72.6 101.4,70.9 101.4,64.1 C101.4,57.8 104.4,55.9 107.5,56 C109.2,56 110.9,56.5 112.1,57.1 L112.1,70.6 L112.1,70.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M52.1,51.2 C44.9,51.2 39.1,56 39.1,64 C39.1,71.9 44.9,76.6 52.1,76.6 C59.3,76.6 65.1,72 65.1,64 C65.1,56.1 59.3,51.2 52.1,51.2 L52.1,51.2 Z M52.1,72.3 C48.7,72.3 46.1,69.7 46.1,64.1 C46.1,58.5 48.7,55.7 52.1,55.7 C55.6,55.7 58.2,58.5 58.1,64.1 C58.1,69.7 55.5,72.3 52.1,72.3 L52.1,72.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M18,9.2 C14.4,9.2 12,10.9 10.1,12.9 L10.1,3 C10.1,2 9.7,1.4 8.9,1.4 L0.3,1.4 L0.3,5.3 L2.1,5.3 C2.7,5.3 3.3,6.1 3.3,6.6 L3.3,34.2 L7.1,34.2 C7.7,34.2 8.7,33.1 9.4,31.8 C10.9,33.4 13,34.6 16.7,34.6 C21.9,34.6 27.3,31.1 27.3,21.6 C27.3,12.3 22.7,9.2 18,9.2 L18,9.2 Z M14.5,30.7 C12.4,30.7 11.1,30.1 10,29.3 L10,15.2 C11.5,14.7 13.2,14.2 14.6,14.2 C17.6,14.2 20.3,15.7 20.3,22.2 C20.3,29.1 17.3,30.7 14.5,30.7 L14.5,30.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M152.9,30.6 C152.2,30.6 151.7,30.1 150.8,29.3 L147.7,26.2 C148.9,23.9 149.7,21.5 150.5,19.1 C150.7,18.3 151.3,17.9 152,17.9 L153.1,17.9 L153.1,14 L143,14 L143,17.9 L145.2,17.9 C144.8,19.3 144.4,20.8 143.7,22.3 L135.9,14.5 C134.3,12.9 133.2,11.5 133.2,9.5 C133.2,7.4 134,5.9 137,5.9 C138.5,5.9 139,6.2 139.8,6.5 L140.6,10 L145.5,10 L145.5,1.5 L139.8,1.5 C139.3,1.3 137.4,1.1 136,1.1 C130,1.1 126,4.4 126,9.6 C126,12.4 126.8,14.2 128.2,16 C124.2,17.7 121.4,20.3 121.5,25.5 C121.5,31.4 125.7,34.9 133.5,34.9 C137.7,34.9 140.9,33.7 143.3,31.8 L146,34.5 L153.3,34.5 L153.3,30.6 L152.9,30.6 L152.9,30.6 Z M134.6,30 C130.6,30 128.9,27.5 128.8,24.3 C128.8,21.7 129.8,20 130.9,18.9 L139.7,28 C138.3,29.2 136.6,30 134.6,30 L134.6,30 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M146,63.3 C146,55 142.2,51.2 134.8,51.2 C127.3,51.2 122.4,56 122.4,64 C122.4,71.8 126.6,76.6 135.2,76.6 C140.4,76.6 143.1,75.4 145.1,74.2 L145.1,69.7 L141.2,69.7 C139.9,71.3 138.9,72.4 135.8,72.4 C131.8,72.4 129.7,70.1 129.4,65.2 L145.9,65.2 C145.9,65 146,64.2 146,63.3 L146,63.3 Z M129.5,61.3 C130,57.1 131.9,55.3 134.8,55.3 C137.6,55.3 138.9,57 139.1,61.3 L129.5,61.3 L129.5,61.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> </g> </g> </svg></div> <div class="col-md-3 footer-header">Follow Us</div> <div class="col-md-6 footer-header">Subscribe</div> </div> <div class="row links"> <div class="col-6 col-md-3"> <a href="https://brickandwonder.com/contact">Contact Us</a> <a href="https://brickandwonder.com/beta">Beta</a> <a href="https://brickandwonder.com/privacy-policy">Legal</a> </div> <div class="col-6 col-md-3"> <a href="https://www.facebook.com/Brick-and-Wonder-242766292740835/">Facebook</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/brickandwonder">Twitter</a> <a href="https://instagram.com/brickandwonder">Instagram</a> <a href="https://www.pinterest.com/brickandwonder">Pinterest</a> </div> <div class="col-md-6"> <div class="footer-group signup"> <form action="//langarchitecture.us3.list-manage.com/subscribe/post?u=debb63dba6fc6484e0048cf97&amp;id=0349ef44a6" method="post" id="mc-embedded-subscribe-form" name="mc-embedded-subscribe-form" class="validate email-signup" target="_blank" novalidate> <div class="form-full"> <input class="email" type="email" value="" name="EMAIL" placeholder="Enter your email"/> <input type="submit" class="submit" value="SUBMIT" name="subscribe" id="mc-embedded-subscribe" class="validate submit" target="_blank" novalidate> <div style="position: absolute; left: -5000px;"><input type="text" nname="b_debb63dba6fc6484e0048cf97_0349ef44a6" tabindex="-1" value=""> </div> </div> <div id="mce-responses" class="clear"> <div class="response" id="mce-error-response" style="display:none"></div> <div class="response" id="mce-success-response" style="display:none"></div> </div> <!-- real people should not fill this in and expect good things - do not remove this or risk form bot signups--> </form> <script type='text/javascript' src='//s3.amazonaws.com/downloads.mailchimp.com/js/mc-validate.js'></script><script type='text/javascript'>(function($) {window.fnames = new Array(); window.ftypes = new Array();fnames[0]='EMAIL';ftypes[0]='email';fnames[1]='FNAME';ftypes[1]='text';fnames[2]='LNAME';ftypes[2]='text';}(jQuery));var $mcj = jQuery.noConflict(true); </script> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="container bottom"> <div>&copy; 2018 Brick &amp; Wonder. All Rights Reserved. </div> </div> </footer> <script type="text/javascript" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js"></script> <script src="/site/themes/main/js/main.min.js"></script> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-74832017-1', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> </body> </html> ', '0') in FileCacher.php line 46
  5. at FileCacher->cachePage(object(Request), '<!DOCTYPE html> <!--[if lt IE 7]><html class="no-js lt-ie9 lt-ie8 lt-ie7"><![endif]--> <!--[if IE 7]><html class="no-js lt-ie9 lt-ie8" <![endif]--> <!--[if IE 8]><html class="no-js lt-ie9" <![endif]--> <!--[if gt IE 8]><!--> <html class="no-js"> <!--<![endif]--> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1"> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1"> <meta name="p:domain_verify" content="0f692d5c691bb1650b47fe04ea53350f"/> <title>6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever</title> <meta name="description" content="The inspiration for housing developments as we know them was not pulled out of thin air. Over the years notable residential projects have, for..."> <meta property="og:title" content="6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever" /> <meta property="og:url" content="https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever" /> <meta property="og:type" content="blog" /> <meta property="og:description" content="The inspiration for housing developments as we know them was not pulled out of thin air. Over the years notable residential projects have, for..." /> <meta property="og:image" content="https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg" /> <meta property="fb:app_id" content="941157732639664" /> <script type="application/ld+json"> { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "BreadcrumbList", "itemListElement": [ { "@type": "ListItem", "position": 1, "item": { "@id": "https://brickandwonder.com/", "name": "Exceptional Real Estate & Design Talent" } },{ "@type": "ListItem", "position": 2, "item": { "@id": "https://brickandwonder.com/journal", "name": "Journal" } },{ "@type": "ListItem", "position": 3, "item": { "@id": "https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever", "name": "6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever", "image": "https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg" } }] } </script> <script type="application/ld+json"> { "@context":"http://schema.org", "@type":"BlogPosting", "name":"6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever", "headline":"6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever", "dateCreated":"May 3rd, 2017", "keywords":"Architecture, Process", "image":"https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg", "author":"Sam Lubell", "datePublished":"2017-05-03", "publisher":"Organization" } </script> <link rel="canonical" href="https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="/site/themes/main/css/main-b7f354f9c9.min.css" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="/site/themes/main/css/wufoo.css"> <script> // https://github.com/morris/typekit-cache !function(e,t,n,a,c,l,m,o,d,f,h,i){c[l]&&(d=e.createElement(t),d[n]=c[l],e[a]("head")[0].appendChild(d),e.documentElement.className+=" wf-cached"),function s(){for(d=e[a](t),f="",h=0;h<d.length;h++)i=d[h][n],i.match(m)&&(f+=i);f&&(c[l]="/**/"+f),setTimeout(s,o+=o)}()}(document,"style","innerHTML","getElementsByTagName",localStorage,"tk",/^@font|^\.tk-/,100); (function(d) { var config = { kitId: 'vib5hdw', scriptTimeout: 3000, async: true }, h=d.documentElement,t=setTimeout(function(){h.className=h.className.replace(/\bwf-loading\b/g,"")+" wf-inactive";},config.scriptTimeout),tk=d.createElement("script"),f=false,s=d.getElementsByTagName("script")[0],a;h.className+=" wf-loading";tk.src='https://use.typekit.net/'+config.kitId+'.js';tk.async=true;tk.onload=tk.onreadystatechange=function(){a=this.readyState;if(f||a&&a!="complete"&&a!="loaded")return;f=true;clearTimeout(t);try{Typekit.load(config)}catch(e){}};s.parentNode.insertBefore(tk,s) })(document); </script> <!-- Facebook Pixel Code --> <script> !function(f,b,e,v,n,t,s){if(f.fbq)return;n=f.fbq=function(){n.callMethod? n.callMethod.apply(n,arguments):n.queue.push(arguments)};if(!f._fbq)f._fbq=n; n.push=n;n.loaded=!0;n.version='2.0';n.queue=[];t=b.createElement(e);t.async=!0; t.src=v;s=b.getElementsByTagName(e)[0];s.parentNode.insertBefore(t,s)}(window, document,'script','https://connect.facebook.net/en_US/fbevents.js'); fbq('init', '1832634483660033'); // Insert your pixel ID here. fbq('track', 'PageView'); </script> <noscript><img height="1" width="1" style="display:none" src="https://www.facebook.com/tr?id=1832634483660033&ev=PageView&noscript=1" /></noscript> <!-- DO NOT MODIFY --> <!-- End Facebook Pixel Code --> <script async defer src="//assets.pinterest.com/js/pinit.js"></script> <link rel="shortcut icon" type="image/png" href="/site/themes/main/img/favicon.png"> <style> </style> <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.2.1/jquery.min.js"></script> </head> <body class="tan"> <div id="co-registration-trigger"></div> <div class="nav mobile"> <div class="container"> <div class="nav-wrap"> <div id="box"> <ul id="trigger-overlay"> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> </ul> </div> <a id="logo" href="/"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?> <svg viewBox="0 0 165 77" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:sketch="http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch/ns"> <!-- Generator: Sketch 3.5.1 (25234) - http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch --> <title>logo</title> <desc>Created with Sketch.</desc> <defs></defs> <g id="Page-1" stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd" sketch:type="MSPage"> <g id="logo" sketch:type="MSLayerGroup" fill="#EBE9E2"> <path d="M83.4,1.4 L92.1,1.4 C92.9,1.4 93.3,2 93.3,3 L93.3,21.7 L99.5,15.6 C100.3,14.8 100.1,13.7 99.1,13.7 L98.2,13.7 L98.2,9.6 L109.3,9.6 L109.3,13.7 L108,13.7 C107.3,13.7 106.5,14.1 106,14.6 L100.7,19.7 L107.1,29 C107.8,29.9 108.3,30.3 108.9,30.3 L109.4,30.3 L109.4,34.2 L102.7,34.2 L96,24.2 L93.2,26.9 L93.2,30.3 L95.6,30.3 L95.6,34.2 L83.5,34.2 L83.5,30.3 L85.1,30.3 C85.7,30.3 86.3,29.6 86.3,29.1 L86.3,6.6 C86.3,6.1 85.7,5.3 85.1,5.3 L83.3,5.3 L83.3,1.4 L83.4,1.4 L83.4,1.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M73.7,9.2 C77.7,9.2 80.4,9.8 82,10.5 L82,16.1 L77.9,16.1 C77.1,14.4 76,13.6 73.6,13.6 C69.9,13.6 67.6,16.2 67.6,22.1 C67.6,28 69.5,30.4 73.5,30.4 C76.6,30.4 77.8,29 78.8,27.8 L82.1,27.8 L82.1,32.6 C80.3,33.6 77.5,34.7 73.3,34.7 C64.7,34.7 60.5,30 60.5,22.1 C60.6,14.1 65.7,9.2 73.7,9.2 L73.7,9.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M53.4,0.4 C55.5,0.4 57.1,2 57.1,4.1 C57.1,6.2 55.5,7.7 53.4,7.7 C51.3,7.7 49.7,6.1 49.7,4.1 C49.7,2.1 51.3,0.4 53.4,0.4 L53.4,0.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M46.9,9.6 L55.8,9.6 C56.6,9.6 56.9,10.4 56.9,12.2 L56.9,29.2 C56.9,29.8 57.5,30.4 58.1,30.4 L59.9,30.4 L59.9,34.3 L47.1,34.3 L47.1,30.4 L48.9,30.4 C49.5,30.4 50,29.7 50,29.2 L50,15 C50,14.5 49.4,13.7 48.9,13.7 L46.9,13.7 L46.9,9.6 L46.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M27.9,9.6 L36.3,9.6 C37.1,9.6 37.6,10.3 37.7,13.2 C39.3,11.2 41.3,9.4 44.5,9.4 C45,9.4 45.5,9.5 46,9.6 L46,14.7 L44.8,14.7 C41.2,14.7 39.1,15.5 37.7,16.2 L37.7,30.4 L41.1,30.4 L41.1,34.3 L28,34.3 L28,30.4 L29.6,30.4 C30.2,30.4 30.8,29.7 30.8,29.2 L30.8,15 C30.8,14.5 30.2,13.7 29.6,13.7 L27.8,13.7 L27.8,9.6 L27.9,9.6 L27.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M36.6,57.2 L31,76.3 L25.1,76.3 L20.4,60.3 L20.3,60.3 L15.4,76.3 L9.5,76.3 L3.9,57.1 C3.6,56.3 3.1,55.8 2.4,55.8 L1.5,55.8 L1.5,51.6 L12.4,51.6 L12.4,55.7 L10.2,55.7 L13.4,68 L13.5,68 L18.3,51.5 L23.6,51.5 L28.4,68 L28.5,68 L31,58.8 C31.6,56.6 31.4,55.7 29.4,55.7 L28.7,55.7 L28.7,51.6 L39,51.6 L39,55.7 L38.2,55.7 C37.6,55.7 36.9,56.2 36.6,57.2 L36.6,57.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M93.6,76.3 L81.4,76.3 L81.4,72.4 L84.2,72.4 L84.2,59.7 C84.2,57.3 83.3,56.5 81,56.5 C79,56.5 77.2,56.9 75.6,57.4 L75.6,72.3 L78.5,72.3 L78.5,76.2 L65.9,76.2 L65.9,72.3 L67.5,72.3 C68.1,72.3 68.7,71.6 68.7,71.1 L68.7,56.9 C68.7,56.4 68.1,55.6 67.5,55.6 L65.7,55.6 L65.7,51.6 L74.1,51.6 C74.9,51.6 75.4,52.3 75.5,54.8 C77.8,52.6 81,51.2 84.7,51.2 C88.1,51.2 91.1,52.6 91.1,57.4 L91.1,71.2 C91.1,71.8 91.7,72.4 92.3,72.4 L93.6,72.4 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M165,56.7 L163.8,56.7 C160.2,56.7 158.1,57.5 156.7,58.2 L156.7,72.4 L160.1,72.4 L160.1,76.3 L147,76.3 L147,72.4 L148.6,72.4 C149.2,72.4 149.8,71.7 149.8,71.2 L149.8,57 C149.8,56.5 149.2,55.7 148.6,55.7 L146.8,55.7 L146.8,51.6 L155.2,51.6 C156,51.6 156.5,52.3 156.6,55.2 C158.2,53.2 160.2,51.4 163.4,51.4 C163.9,51.4 164.4,51.5 164.9,51.6 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M120.3,72.6 C119.7,72.6 119.1,71.8 119.1,71.3 L119.1,45.1 C119.1,44.1 118.7,43.5 117.9,43.5 L109,43.5 L109,47.5 L112.1,47.5 L112.1,54.5 C110.5,52.6 108.4,51.3 105,51.3 C100.2,51.3 94.4,55 94.4,64.3 C94.4,73.7 99.8,76.7 104.7,76.7 C108.1,76.7 110.6,75.3 112.2,73.5 C112.4,75.3 112.8,76.3 113.5,76.3 L121.9,76.3 L122,76.3 L122,72.6 L120.3,72.6 L120.3,72.6 Z M112.1,70.6 C110.8,71.8 109.2,72.6 107,72.6 C104.2,72.6 101.4,70.9 101.4,64.1 C101.4,57.8 104.4,55.9 107.5,56 C109.2,56 110.9,56.5 112.1,57.1 L112.1,70.6 L112.1,70.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M52.1,51.2 C44.9,51.2 39.1,56 39.1,64 C39.1,71.9 44.9,76.6 52.1,76.6 C59.3,76.6 65.1,72 65.1,64 C65.1,56.1 59.3,51.2 52.1,51.2 L52.1,51.2 Z M52.1,72.3 C48.7,72.3 46.1,69.7 46.1,64.1 C46.1,58.5 48.7,55.7 52.1,55.7 C55.6,55.7 58.2,58.5 58.1,64.1 C58.1,69.7 55.5,72.3 52.1,72.3 L52.1,72.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M18,9.2 C14.4,9.2 12,10.9 10.1,12.9 L10.1,3 C10.1,2 9.7,1.4 8.9,1.4 L0.3,1.4 L0.3,5.3 L2.1,5.3 C2.7,5.3 3.3,6.1 3.3,6.6 L3.3,34.2 L7.1,34.2 C7.7,34.2 8.7,33.1 9.4,31.8 C10.9,33.4 13,34.6 16.7,34.6 C21.9,34.6 27.3,31.1 27.3,21.6 C27.3,12.3 22.7,9.2 18,9.2 L18,9.2 Z M14.5,30.7 C12.4,30.7 11.1,30.1 10,29.3 L10,15.2 C11.5,14.7 13.2,14.2 14.6,14.2 C17.6,14.2 20.3,15.7 20.3,22.2 C20.3,29.1 17.3,30.7 14.5,30.7 L14.5,30.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M152.9,30.6 C152.2,30.6 151.7,30.1 150.8,29.3 L147.7,26.2 C148.9,23.9 149.7,21.5 150.5,19.1 C150.7,18.3 151.3,17.9 152,17.9 L153.1,17.9 L153.1,14 L143,14 L143,17.9 L145.2,17.9 C144.8,19.3 144.4,20.8 143.7,22.3 L135.9,14.5 C134.3,12.9 133.2,11.5 133.2,9.5 C133.2,7.4 134,5.9 137,5.9 C138.5,5.9 139,6.2 139.8,6.5 L140.6,10 L145.5,10 L145.5,1.5 L139.8,1.5 C139.3,1.3 137.4,1.1 136,1.1 C130,1.1 126,4.4 126,9.6 C126,12.4 126.8,14.2 128.2,16 C124.2,17.7 121.4,20.3 121.5,25.5 C121.5,31.4 125.7,34.9 133.5,34.9 C137.7,34.9 140.9,33.7 143.3,31.8 L146,34.5 L153.3,34.5 L153.3,30.6 L152.9,30.6 L152.9,30.6 Z M134.6,30 C130.6,30 128.9,27.5 128.8,24.3 C128.8,21.7 129.8,20 130.9,18.9 L139.7,28 C138.3,29.2 136.6,30 134.6,30 L134.6,30 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M146,63.3 C146,55 142.2,51.2 134.8,51.2 C127.3,51.2 122.4,56 122.4,64 C122.4,71.8 126.6,76.6 135.2,76.6 C140.4,76.6 143.1,75.4 145.1,74.2 L145.1,69.7 L141.2,69.7 C139.9,71.3 138.9,72.4 135.8,72.4 C131.8,72.4 129.7,70.1 129.4,65.2 L145.9,65.2 C145.9,65 146,64.2 146,63.3 L146,63.3 Z M129.5,61.3 C130,57.1 131.9,55.3 134.8,55.3 C137.6,55.3 138.9,57 139.1,61.3 L129.5,61.3 L129.5,61.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> </g> </g> </svg></a> <div class="box-spacer"></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="nav desktop title"> <div class="container"> <div class="nav-wrap"> <a id="logo" href="/"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?> <svg viewBox="0 0 165 77" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:sketch="http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch/ns"> <!-- Generator: Sketch 3.5.1 (25234) - http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch --> <title>logo</title> <desc>Created with Sketch.</desc> <defs></defs> <g id="Page-1" stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd" sketch:type="MSPage"> <g id="logo" sketch:type="MSLayerGroup" fill="#EBE9E2"> <path d="M83.4,1.4 L92.1,1.4 C92.9,1.4 93.3,2 93.3,3 L93.3,21.7 L99.5,15.6 C100.3,14.8 100.1,13.7 99.1,13.7 L98.2,13.7 L98.2,9.6 L109.3,9.6 L109.3,13.7 L108,13.7 C107.3,13.7 106.5,14.1 106,14.6 L100.7,19.7 L107.1,29 C107.8,29.9 108.3,30.3 108.9,30.3 L109.4,30.3 L109.4,34.2 L102.7,34.2 L96,24.2 L93.2,26.9 L93.2,30.3 L95.6,30.3 L95.6,34.2 L83.5,34.2 L83.5,30.3 L85.1,30.3 C85.7,30.3 86.3,29.6 86.3,29.1 L86.3,6.6 C86.3,6.1 85.7,5.3 85.1,5.3 L83.3,5.3 L83.3,1.4 L83.4,1.4 L83.4,1.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M73.7,9.2 C77.7,9.2 80.4,9.8 82,10.5 L82,16.1 L77.9,16.1 C77.1,14.4 76,13.6 73.6,13.6 C69.9,13.6 67.6,16.2 67.6,22.1 C67.6,28 69.5,30.4 73.5,30.4 C76.6,30.4 77.8,29 78.8,27.8 L82.1,27.8 L82.1,32.6 C80.3,33.6 77.5,34.7 73.3,34.7 C64.7,34.7 60.5,30 60.5,22.1 C60.6,14.1 65.7,9.2 73.7,9.2 L73.7,9.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M53.4,0.4 C55.5,0.4 57.1,2 57.1,4.1 C57.1,6.2 55.5,7.7 53.4,7.7 C51.3,7.7 49.7,6.1 49.7,4.1 C49.7,2.1 51.3,0.4 53.4,0.4 L53.4,0.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M46.9,9.6 L55.8,9.6 C56.6,9.6 56.9,10.4 56.9,12.2 L56.9,29.2 C56.9,29.8 57.5,30.4 58.1,30.4 L59.9,30.4 L59.9,34.3 L47.1,34.3 L47.1,30.4 L48.9,30.4 C49.5,30.4 50,29.7 50,29.2 L50,15 C50,14.5 49.4,13.7 48.9,13.7 L46.9,13.7 L46.9,9.6 L46.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M27.9,9.6 L36.3,9.6 C37.1,9.6 37.6,10.3 37.7,13.2 C39.3,11.2 41.3,9.4 44.5,9.4 C45,9.4 45.5,9.5 46,9.6 L46,14.7 L44.8,14.7 C41.2,14.7 39.1,15.5 37.7,16.2 L37.7,30.4 L41.1,30.4 L41.1,34.3 L28,34.3 L28,30.4 L29.6,30.4 C30.2,30.4 30.8,29.7 30.8,29.2 L30.8,15 C30.8,14.5 30.2,13.7 29.6,13.7 L27.8,13.7 L27.8,9.6 L27.9,9.6 L27.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M36.6,57.2 L31,76.3 L25.1,76.3 L20.4,60.3 L20.3,60.3 L15.4,76.3 L9.5,76.3 L3.9,57.1 C3.6,56.3 3.1,55.8 2.4,55.8 L1.5,55.8 L1.5,51.6 L12.4,51.6 L12.4,55.7 L10.2,55.7 L13.4,68 L13.5,68 L18.3,51.5 L23.6,51.5 L28.4,68 L28.5,68 L31,58.8 C31.6,56.6 31.4,55.7 29.4,55.7 L28.7,55.7 L28.7,51.6 L39,51.6 L39,55.7 L38.2,55.7 C37.6,55.7 36.9,56.2 36.6,57.2 L36.6,57.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M93.6,76.3 L81.4,76.3 L81.4,72.4 L84.2,72.4 L84.2,59.7 C84.2,57.3 83.3,56.5 81,56.5 C79,56.5 77.2,56.9 75.6,57.4 L75.6,72.3 L78.5,72.3 L78.5,76.2 L65.9,76.2 L65.9,72.3 L67.5,72.3 C68.1,72.3 68.7,71.6 68.7,71.1 L68.7,56.9 C68.7,56.4 68.1,55.6 67.5,55.6 L65.7,55.6 L65.7,51.6 L74.1,51.6 C74.9,51.6 75.4,52.3 75.5,54.8 C77.8,52.6 81,51.2 84.7,51.2 C88.1,51.2 91.1,52.6 91.1,57.4 L91.1,71.2 C91.1,71.8 91.7,72.4 92.3,72.4 L93.6,72.4 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M165,56.7 L163.8,56.7 C160.2,56.7 158.1,57.5 156.7,58.2 L156.7,72.4 L160.1,72.4 L160.1,76.3 L147,76.3 L147,72.4 L148.6,72.4 C149.2,72.4 149.8,71.7 149.8,71.2 L149.8,57 C149.8,56.5 149.2,55.7 148.6,55.7 L146.8,55.7 L146.8,51.6 L155.2,51.6 C156,51.6 156.5,52.3 156.6,55.2 C158.2,53.2 160.2,51.4 163.4,51.4 C163.9,51.4 164.4,51.5 164.9,51.6 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M120.3,72.6 C119.7,72.6 119.1,71.8 119.1,71.3 L119.1,45.1 C119.1,44.1 118.7,43.5 117.9,43.5 L109,43.5 L109,47.5 L112.1,47.5 L112.1,54.5 C110.5,52.6 108.4,51.3 105,51.3 C100.2,51.3 94.4,55 94.4,64.3 C94.4,73.7 99.8,76.7 104.7,76.7 C108.1,76.7 110.6,75.3 112.2,73.5 C112.4,75.3 112.8,76.3 113.5,76.3 L121.9,76.3 L122,76.3 L122,72.6 L120.3,72.6 L120.3,72.6 Z M112.1,70.6 C110.8,71.8 109.2,72.6 107,72.6 C104.2,72.6 101.4,70.9 101.4,64.1 C101.4,57.8 104.4,55.9 107.5,56 C109.2,56 110.9,56.5 112.1,57.1 L112.1,70.6 L112.1,70.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M52.1,51.2 C44.9,51.2 39.1,56 39.1,64 C39.1,71.9 44.9,76.6 52.1,76.6 C59.3,76.6 65.1,72 65.1,64 C65.1,56.1 59.3,51.2 52.1,51.2 L52.1,51.2 Z M52.1,72.3 C48.7,72.3 46.1,69.7 46.1,64.1 C46.1,58.5 48.7,55.7 52.1,55.7 C55.6,55.7 58.2,58.5 58.1,64.1 C58.1,69.7 55.5,72.3 52.1,72.3 L52.1,72.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M18,9.2 C14.4,9.2 12,10.9 10.1,12.9 L10.1,3 C10.1,2 9.7,1.4 8.9,1.4 L0.3,1.4 L0.3,5.3 L2.1,5.3 C2.7,5.3 3.3,6.1 3.3,6.6 L3.3,34.2 L7.1,34.2 C7.7,34.2 8.7,33.1 9.4,31.8 C10.9,33.4 13,34.6 16.7,34.6 C21.9,34.6 27.3,31.1 27.3,21.6 C27.3,12.3 22.7,9.2 18,9.2 L18,9.2 Z M14.5,30.7 C12.4,30.7 11.1,30.1 10,29.3 L10,15.2 C11.5,14.7 13.2,14.2 14.6,14.2 C17.6,14.2 20.3,15.7 20.3,22.2 C20.3,29.1 17.3,30.7 14.5,30.7 L14.5,30.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M152.9,30.6 C152.2,30.6 151.7,30.1 150.8,29.3 L147.7,26.2 C148.9,23.9 149.7,21.5 150.5,19.1 C150.7,18.3 151.3,17.9 152,17.9 L153.1,17.9 L153.1,14 L143,14 L143,17.9 L145.2,17.9 C144.8,19.3 144.4,20.8 143.7,22.3 L135.9,14.5 C134.3,12.9 133.2,11.5 133.2,9.5 C133.2,7.4 134,5.9 137,5.9 C138.5,5.9 139,6.2 139.8,6.5 L140.6,10 L145.5,10 L145.5,1.5 L139.8,1.5 C139.3,1.3 137.4,1.1 136,1.1 C130,1.1 126,4.4 126,9.6 C126,12.4 126.8,14.2 128.2,16 C124.2,17.7 121.4,20.3 121.5,25.5 C121.5,31.4 125.7,34.9 133.5,34.9 C137.7,34.9 140.9,33.7 143.3,31.8 L146,34.5 L153.3,34.5 L153.3,30.6 L152.9,30.6 L152.9,30.6 Z M134.6,30 C130.6,30 128.9,27.5 128.8,24.3 C128.8,21.7 129.8,20 130.9,18.9 L139.7,28 C138.3,29.2 136.6,30 134.6,30 L134.6,30 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M146,63.3 C146,55 142.2,51.2 134.8,51.2 C127.3,51.2 122.4,56 122.4,64 C122.4,71.8 126.6,76.6 135.2,76.6 C140.4,76.6 143.1,75.4 145.1,74.2 L145.1,69.7 L141.2,69.7 C139.9,71.3 138.9,72.4 135.8,72.4 C131.8,72.4 129.7,70.1 129.4,65.2 L145.9,65.2 C145.9,65 146,64.2 146,63.3 L146,63.3 Z M129.5,61.3 C130,57.1 131.9,55.3 134.8,55.3 C137.6,55.3 138.9,57 139.1,61.3 L129.5,61.3 L129.5,61.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> </g> </g> </svg></a> <div class="center-container"> <div class="nav-links"> <a href="/properties" >PROPERTIES</a> <a href="/journal" class="active">JOURNAL</a> <a target="_blank" href="https://community.brickandwonder.com/login">MEMBERS</a> <a href="/about-us" >ABOUT</a> <a href="/beta" >BETA</a> </div> <div class="title-header"> <h3>6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever</h3> </div> </div> <div class="social-links"> <a target="_blank" href="https://instagram.com/brickandwonder"><i class="fa fa-instagram" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> <a target="_blank" href="https://twitter.com/brickandwonder"><i class="fa fa-twitter" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> <a target="_blank" href="https://www.facebook.com/Brick-and-Wonder-242766292740835/"><i class="fa fa-facebook-square" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> <a target="_blank" href="https://www.pinterest.com/brickandwonder"><i class="fa fa-pinterest" aria-hidden="true"></i></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="page-wrap tan"> <div class="hero short journal" style="background-image: url('/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg')"> </div> <section class="journal-details"> <div class="container"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-12"> <h1>6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever</h1> </div> </div> <div class="meta"> <div class="row"> <div class="details col-6"> <span>BY: <a href="/authors/sam-lubell">SAM LUBELL</a> </span> <span>MAY 3RD, 2017</span> </div> <div class="share col-6"> <script> window.fbAsyncInit = function() { FB.init({ appId : '941157732639664', xfbml : true, version : 'v2.12' }); FB.AppEvents.logPageView(); }; (function(d, s, id){ var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0]; if (d.getElementById(id)) {return;} js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id; js.src = "//connect.facebook.net/en_US/sdk.js"; fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs); }(document, 'script', 'facebook-jssdk')); function postToFeed(description) { var obj = { method: 'share', redirect_uri: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', href: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', link: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', picture: "https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg", description: '', name: '6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever', }; function callback(response) { document.getElementById('msg').innerHTML = "Post ID: " + response['post_id']; } FB.ui(obj, callback); } </script> <div class="social-share"> <a class="fb" onclick='postToFeed("."); return false;' class="social" > <i class="fa fa-facebook"></i> </a> <a href="javascript:void((function()%7Bvar%20e=document.createElement(&apos;script&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;type&apos;,&apos;text/javascript&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;charset&apos;,&apos;UTF-8&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;src&apos;,&apos;https://assets.pinterest.com/js/pinmarklet.js?r=&apos;+Math.random()*99999999);document.body.appendChild(e)%7D)());"> <i class="fa fa-pinterest"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?url=https://brickandwonder.com//journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-twitter"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="mailto:?body=https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-envelope"></i> </a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <p>The inspiration for housing developments as we know them was not pulled out of thin air. Over the years notable residential projects have, for better or worse, shaped the development that’s taken place since. Many have taken on cultish status, endlessly referenced, documented and imitated. They have become architectural rock stars or in come cases, villains. Often they played these roles simultaneously.<br> </p> <p><br> </p> <h3>Forest Hills, Queens, NY, 20th Century</h3> <p>The idea of the Garden City—a self-contained town infused with greenery and surrounded by green belts—was first initiated by Ebenezer Howard in the late 19th Century. It has been passed on as legend for generations. One of the first manifestations of the idea was Forest Hills Gardens, a 175-acre suburb consisting of over 800 freestanding and attached homes and 11 apartments. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted Jr, son of the famed designer of Central Park, the development consisted of gracefully placed English-style brick homes shaded by thick trees and verdant landscaping. The Garden Suburb, with its tree-lined streets, low-density homes, and generous parks and woods, took off at this time. Other examples (among many) include Hampstead Garden Suburb outside London, Llewellyn Park, in northern New Jersey, the Main Line, outside Philadelphia, Coral Gables, outside Miami, and Wyvernwood Garden Apartments, in Los Angeles. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzgxODc1OTk0OV84ZjZmZGJlZDBmX28uanBn?w=1000&s=9aae01dccc51ee58ff2d787cd4a6055a" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzE0MjYyOTQ1MS5qcGc=?w=1000&s=806dfe802c5124d5ac5d6baff50bfe22" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Park La Brea, 1944</h3> <p>After World War II large housing developments sprouted up across the country, responding to pent up demand, generous mortgage terms, and a booming economy and population. One of the first was located in the mid-Wilshire neighborhood. Instigated by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, the plan situated 18 13-story towers and many more cottages within the California landscape. Only about 20 percent of the land was dedicated to buildings, and each unit looks onto park space. Metropolitan Life also developed many of the country’s most important large-scale developments, including Stuyvesant Town in New York, Park Merced in San Francisco, and Park Fairfax in Alexandria, Virginia. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzMwNjAxZDkyMDY4YzdkMjlhYTIwYWUxNjViNzQzMDc4LmpwZw==?w=1000&s=56ce2224cf56ec247f1638ab60749229" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL1NjcmVlbiBTaG90IDIwMTctMDMtMTAgYXQgNC4wMS4yNCBQTS5qcGc=?w=1000&s=2cc8e20b75db6ed91a45a9290ee72829" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Sea Ranch, 1965</h3> <p>Perhaps no housing development is as enchanting as Sea Ranch, a community of Bay Modernist homes perched on a 10 mile stretch of rugged cliffs, about three hours north of San Francisco. Straddling both sides of the Pacific Coast Highway, it extends about a mile inland, creating a linear form consisting of clusters of houses marked by cypress and pine hedgerows that form enclaves of grassy meadows. The tiny town was founded by developer Oceanic California, whose planning director Al Boeke assembled a group of architects, landscape architects and planners to create a place where all buildings recognize and reinforce the natural topography, placed ‘within it, not upon it.’ Lawrence Halprin led the landscape development, while prototype buildings – angular, modern structures clad in vertical wood siding, like barns – were created by Moore, Lyndon, Turnbull, and Whitaker (MLTW), Joseph Esherick, and others. The most famous is the ten-unit Condominium One, Charles Moore’s first major work. The shed-style building, with its mono-pitched roof, comprises intimate spaces containing ‘saddlebags,’ small projections that provide views and contemplative space. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzIzOS1NYWluMS5qcGc=?w=1000&s=3233c6f3bbeebc3fe0befc7b257a0e05" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzM4NDcwX1JvYmluc29uUmVlZi0zMC5qcGc=?w=1000&s=5cd01c786c46069645edda3bc2d03b3b" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Seaside, 1981</h3> <p>Founded by developer Robert Davis on an 80-acre plot along the Florida Gulf Coast, Seaside is the unofficial Mecca for New Urbanism, a design movement dedicated to re-instituting traditional planning and architecture. Seaside’s master plan, devised by Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, intended to invoke the scale and character of an old Southern town, with strict height limits, walkable streets, mid-block footpaths, and vernacular styles of architecture like Victorian, Palladian, Charleston, Antebellum, and Greek Revival. Each home had to have a front porch and a picket fence. As the plan developed, architects like Deborah Berke, Steven Holl Architects, and Machado & Silvetti added more contemporary additions to the town’s commercial fabric. Like Disney’s Celebration, Seaside became a model not just for new urbanism, but for Postmodern developments countrywide. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzE3MDIyMy1zZWFzaWRlLTcwNC0yMDAwLmpwZw==?w=1000&s=7cedaca26a72b252ac5bf4f15babf87e" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL1JTMjk2OF9TZWFzaWRlLVJvb2ZzY2FwZXMtbi1HdWxmLWxwci5qcGc=?w=1000&s=857d9e7922d511857f638b8901ead6dc" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Monterrey Housing, 2009</h3> <p>As our communities continue to densify and increase in cost, we’re grasping unsuccessfully for the next vital housing models. One of the most impactful recent examples is Elemental’s Monterrey Housing, an affordable, state-sponsored development of 70 homes in Santa Catarina, Mexico. The project consists of a continuous three story building with the “home” on the first floor and a two-story duplex above. Its density saves cost while still allowing for flexibility as a family grows or obtains more funds. Rows of these residences surround internal courtyards and are topped by thin, unifying rooflines. Elemental, of course, is helmed by recent Pritzker Prize winner (and Venice Architecture Biennale curator) Alejandro Aravena, and his high profile has helped him put this and other affordable plans on the world stage. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL1JhbWlybyBSYW1pcmV6IC0gbW9udGVycmV5LmpwZw==?w=1000&s=b5d91ec214d5cb9cd9b0123c7cc99c10" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL0VsZW1lbnRhbC5qcGc=?w=1000&s=bc1ead416fd152dedcf09b8887b88c54" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="journal-content"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <h3>Linked Hybrid, 2009</h3> <p>This stacked, city-in-a-city, located next to the site of the old city wall of Beijing, was designed as an antidote to the country’s walled, privatized housing developments. Consisting of eight residential and hotel towers, the complex’s ground level offers a number of open passages, lined with retail, restaurants, schools, and cinemas for both residents and visitors. Intermediate spaces include public roof gardens, while upper levels are linked via planted sky bridges, spanning penthouses. Green space and large ponds surround the project, making it a green oasis in a sea of concrete. </p> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzLzIwMTItMzk4NTQuanBn?w=1000&s=31ea08ff5d1ec6db8ab4ed80298006e1" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="image-caption"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-10"> <img src="/img/asset/bWFpbi9pbWcvMjAxNy9qb3VybmFsL1NhbS1MdWJlbGwtRGV2ZWxvcG1lbnRzL19NR185Nzg1LW1lZGEtV0hPUi5qcGc=?w=1000&s=3c45026948d4dae64ba529ad44c1274a" alt=""> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section class="tags"> <div class="container"> <div class="row justify-content-center"> <div class="col-md-8"> <div class="tag-cloud"> TAGS: <a href="/tags/architecture">ARCHITECTURE, </a><a href="/tags/process">PROCESS</a> </div> <script> window.fbAsyncInit = function() { FB.init({ appId : '941157732639664', xfbml : true, version : 'v2.12' }); FB.AppEvents.logPageView(); }; (function(d, s, id){ var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0]; if (d.getElementById(id)) {return;} js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id; js.src = "//connect.facebook.net/en_US/sdk.js"; fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs); }(document, 'script', 'facebook-jssdk')); function postToFeed(description) { var obj = { method: 'share', redirect_uri: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', href: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', link: 'https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever', picture: "https://brickandwonder.com/assets/img/2017/journal/Sam-Lubell-Developments/mandatory-credit-jeffrey-milsteinrex-features-959b-diaporama-lead.jpg", description: '', name: '6 Developments that Changed Architecture Forever', }; function callback(response) { document.getElementById('msg').innerHTML = "Post ID: " + response['post_id']; } FB.ui(obj, callback); } </script> <div class="social-share"> <a class="fb" onclick='postToFeed("."); return false;' class="social" > <i class="fa fa-facebook"></i> </a> <a href="javascript:void((function()%7Bvar%20e=document.createElement(&apos;script&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;type&apos;,&apos;text/javascript&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;charset&apos;,&apos;UTF-8&apos;);e.setAttribute(&apos;src&apos;,&apos;https://assets.pinterest.com/js/pinmarklet.js?r=&apos;+Math.random()*99999999);document.body.appendChild(e)%7D)());"> <i class="fa fa-pinterest"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?url=https://brickandwonder.com//journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-twitter"></i> </a> <a class="social" href="mailto:?body=https://brickandwonder.com/journal/6-developments-that-changed-architecture-forever"> <i class="fa fa-envelope"></i> </a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </section> </div> <div class="overlay overlay-hugeinc"> <!-- <button type="button" class="overlay-close">Close</button> --> <nav> <ul> <li> <a href="/properties">PROPERTIES</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li class="active"> <a href="/journal">JOURNAL</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li> <a href="https://community.brickandwonder.com/login">MEMBERS</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li> <a href="/about-us">ABOUT</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <li> <a href="/beta">BETA</a> <!-- <div></div> --> </li> <ul> </nav> </div> <footer> <div class="container"> <div class="row align-items-end"> <div class="col-md-3 footer-header"><?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?> <svg viewBox="0 0 165 77" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:sketch="http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch/ns"> <!-- Generator: Sketch 3.5.1 (25234) - http://www.bohemiancoding.com/sketch --> <title>logo</title> <desc>Created with Sketch.</desc> <defs></defs> <g id="Page-1" stroke="none" stroke-width="1" fill="none" fill-rule="evenodd" sketch:type="MSPage"> <g id="logo" sketch:type="MSLayerGroup" fill="#EBE9E2"> <path d="M83.4,1.4 L92.1,1.4 C92.9,1.4 93.3,2 93.3,3 L93.3,21.7 L99.5,15.6 C100.3,14.8 100.1,13.7 99.1,13.7 L98.2,13.7 L98.2,9.6 L109.3,9.6 L109.3,13.7 L108,13.7 C107.3,13.7 106.5,14.1 106,14.6 L100.7,19.7 L107.1,29 C107.8,29.9 108.3,30.3 108.9,30.3 L109.4,30.3 L109.4,34.2 L102.7,34.2 L96,24.2 L93.2,26.9 L93.2,30.3 L95.6,30.3 L95.6,34.2 L83.5,34.2 L83.5,30.3 L85.1,30.3 C85.7,30.3 86.3,29.6 86.3,29.1 L86.3,6.6 C86.3,6.1 85.7,5.3 85.1,5.3 L83.3,5.3 L83.3,1.4 L83.4,1.4 L83.4,1.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M73.7,9.2 C77.7,9.2 80.4,9.8 82,10.5 L82,16.1 L77.9,16.1 C77.1,14.4 76,13.6 73.6,13.6 C69.9,13.6 67.6,16.2 67.6,22.1 C67.6,28 69.5,30.4 73.5,30.4 C76.6,30.4 77.8,29 78.8,27.8 L82.1,27.8 L82.1,32.6 C80.3,33.6 77.5,34.7 73.3,34.7 C64.7,34.7 60.5,30 60.5,22.1 C60.6,14.1 65.7,9.2 73.7,9.2 L73.7,9.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M53.4,0.4 C55.5,0.4 57.1,2 57.1,4.1 C57.1,6.2 55.5,7.7 53.4,7.7 C51.3,7.7 49.7,6.1 49.7,4.1 C49.7,2.1 51.3,0.4 53.4,0.4 L53.4,0.4 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M46.9,9.6 L55.8,9.6 C56.6,9.6 56.9,10.4 56.9,12.2 L56.9,29.2 C56.9,29.8 57.5,30.4 58.1,30.4 L59.9,30.4 L59.9,34.3 L47.1,34.3 L47.1,30.4 L48.9,30.4 C49.5,30.4 50,29.7 50,29.2 L50,15 C50,14.5 49.4,13.7 48.9,13.7 L46.9,13.7 L46.9,9.6 L46.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M27.9,9.6 L36.3,9.6 C37.1,9.6 37.6,10.3 37.7,13.2 C39.3,11.2 41.3,9.4 44.5,9.4 C45,9.4 45.5,9.5 46,9.6 L46,14.7 L44.8,14.7 C41.2,14.7 39.1,15.5 37.7,16.2 L37.7,30.4 L41.1,30.4 L41.1,34.3 L28,34.3 L28,30.4 L29.6,30.4 C30.2,30.4 30.8,29.7 30.8,29.2 L30.8,15 C30.8,14.5 30.2,13.7 29.6,13.7 L27.8,13.7 L27.8,9.6 L27.9,9.6 L27.9,9.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M36.6,57.2 L31,76.3 L25.1,76.3 L20.4,60.3 L20.3,60.3 L15.4,76.3 L9.5,76.3 L3.9,57.1 C3.6,56.3 3.1,55.8 2.4,55.8 L1.5,55.8 L1.5,51.6 L12.4,51.6 L12.4,55.7 L10.2,55.7 L13.4,68 L13.5,68 L18.3,51.5 L23.6,51.5 L28.4,68 L28.5,68 L31,58.8 C31.6,56.6 31.4,55.7 29.4,55.7 L28.7,55.7 L28.7,51.6 L39,51.6 L39,55.7 L38.2,55.7 C37.6,55.7 36.9,56.2 36.6,57.2 L36.6,57.2 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M93.6,76.3 L81.4,76.3 L81.4,72.4 L84.2,72.4 L84.2,59.7 C84.2,57.3 83.3,56.5 81,56.5 C79,56.5 77.2,56.9 75.6,57.4 L75.6,72.3 L78.5,72.3 L78.5,76.2 L65.9,76.2 L65.9,72.3 L67.5,72.3 C68.1,72.3 68.7,71.6 68.7,71.1 L68.7,56.9 C68.7,56.4 68.1,55.6 67.5,55.6 L65.7,55.6 L65.7,51.6 L74.1,51.6 C74.9,51.6 75.4,52.3 75.5,54.8 C77.8,52.6 81,51.2 84.7,51.2 C88.1,51.2 91.1,52.6 91.1,57.4 L91.1,71.2 C91.1,71.8 91.7,72.4 92.3,72.4 L93.6,72.4 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 L93.6,76.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M165,56.7 L163.8,56.7 C160.2,56.7 158.1,57.5 156.7,58.2 L156.7,72.4 L160.1,72.4 L160.1,76.3 L147,76.3 L147,72.4 L148.6,72.4 C149.2,72.4 149.8,71.7 149.8,71.2 L149.8,57 C149.8,56.5 149.2,55.7 148.6,55.7 L146.8,55.7 L146.8,51.6 L155.2,51.6 C156,51.6 156.5,52.3 156.6,55.2 C158.2,53.2 160.2,51.4 163.4,51.4 C163.9,51.4 164.4,51.5 164.9,51.6 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 L165,56.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M120.3,72.6 C119.7,72.6 119.1,71.8 119.1,71.3 L119.1,45.1 C119.1,44.1 118.7,43.5 117.9,43.5 L109,43.5 L109,47.5 L112.1,47.5 L112.1,54.5 C110.5,52.6 108.4,51.3 105,51.3 C100.2,51.3 94.4,55 94.4,64.3 C94.4,73.7 99.8,76.7 104.7,76.7 C108.1,76.7 110.6,75.3 112.2,73.5 C112.4,75.3 112.8,76.3 113.5,76.3 L121.9,76.3 L122,76.3 L122,72.6 L120.3,72.6 L120.3,72.6 Z M112.1,70.6 C110.8,71.8 109.2,72.6 107,72.6 C104.2,72.6 101.4,70.9 101.4,64.1 C101.4,57.8 104.4,55.9 107.5,56 C109.2,56 110.9,56.5 112.1,57.1 L112.1,70.6 L112.1,70.6 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M52.1,51.2 C44.9,51.2 39.1,56 39.1,64 C39.1,71.9 44.9,76.6 52.1,76.6 C59.3,76.6 65.1,72 65.1,64 C65.1,56.1 59.3,51.2 52.1,51.2 L52.1,51.2 Z M52.1,72.3 C48.7,72.3 46.1,69.7 46.1,64.1 C46.1,58.5 48.7,55.7 52.1,55.7 C55.6,55.7 58.2,58.5 58.1,64.1 C58.1,69.7 55.5,72.3 52.1,72.3 L52.1,72.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M18,9.2 C14.4,9.2 12,10.9 10.1,12.9 L10.1,3 C10.1,2 9.7,1.4 8.9,1.4 L0.3,1.4 L0.3,5.3 L2.1,5.3 C2.7,5.3 3.3,6.1 3.3,6.6 L3.3,34.2 L7.1,34.2 C7.7,34.2 8.7,33.1 9.4,31.8 C10.9,33.4 13,34.6 16.7,34.6 C21.9,34.6 27.3,31.1 27.3,21.6 C27.3,12.3 22.7,9.2 18,9.2 L18,9.2 Z M14.5,30.7 C12.4,30.7 11.1,30.1 10,29.3 L10,15.2 C11.5,14.7 13.2,14.2 14.6,14.2 C17.6,14.2 20.3,15.7 20.3,22.2 C20.3,29.1 17.3,30.7 14.5,30.7 L14.5,30.7 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M152.9,30.6 C152.2,30.6 151.7,30.1 150.8,29.3 L147.7,26.2 C148.9,23.9 149.7,21.5 150.5,19.1 C150.7,18.3 151.3,17.9 152,17.9 L153.1,17.9 L153.1,14 L143,14 L143,17.9 L145.2,17.9 C144.8,19.3 144.4,20.8 143.7,22.3 L135.9,14.5 C134.3,12.9 133.2,11.5 133.2,9.5 C133.2,7.4 134,5.9 137,5.9 C138.5,5.9 139,6.2 139.8,6.5 L140.6,10 L145.5,10 L145.5,1.5 L139.8,1.5 C139.3,1.3 137.4,1.1 136,1.1 C130,1.1 126,4.4 126,9.6 C126,12.4 126.8,14.2 128.2,16 C124.2,17.7 121.4,20.3 121.5,25.5 C121.5,31.4 125.7,34.9 133.5,34.9 C137.7,34.9 140.9,33.7 143.3,31.8 L146,34.5 L153.3,34.5 L153.3,30.6 L152.9,30.6 L152.9,30.6 Z M134.6,30 C130.6,30 128.9,27.5 128.8,24.3 C128.8,21.7 129.8,20 130.9,18.9 L139.7,28 C138.3,29.2 136.6,30 134.6,30 L134.6,30 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> <path d="M146,63.3 C146,55 142.2,51.2 134.8,51.2 C127.3,51.2 122.4,56 122.4,64 C122.4,71.8 126.6,76.6 135.2,76.6 C140.4,76.6 143.1,75.4 145.1,74.2 L145.1,69.7 L141.2,69.7 C139.9,71.3 138.9,72.4 135.8,72.4 C131.8,72.4 129.7,70.1 129.4,65.2 L145.9,65.2 C145.9,65 146,64.2 146,63.3 L146,63.3 Z M129.5,61.3 C130,57.1 131.9,55.3 134.8,55.3 C137.6,55.3 138.9,57 139.1,61.3 L129.5,61.3 L129.5,61.3 Z" id="Shape" sketch:type="MSShapeGroup"></path> </g> </g> </svg></div> <div class="col-md-3 footer-header">Follow Us</div> <div class="col-md-6 footer-header">Subscribe</div> </div> <div class="row links"> <div class="col-6 col-md-3"> <a href="https://brickandwonder.com/contact">Contact Us</a> <a href="https://brickandwonder.com/beta">Beta</a> <a href="https://brickandwonder.com/privacy-policy">Legal</a> </div> <div class="col-6 col-md-3"> <a href="https://www.facebook.com/Brick-and-Wonder-242766292740835/">Facebook</a> <a href="https://twitter.com/brickandwonder">Twitter</a> <a href="https://instagram.com/brickandwonder">Instagram</a> <a href="https://www.pinterest.com/brickandwonder">Pinterest</a> </div> <div class="col-md-6"> <div class="footer-group signup"> <form action="//langarchitecture.us3.list-manage.com/subscribe/post?u=debb63dba6fc6484e0048cf97&amp;id=0349ef44a6" method="post" id="mc-embedded-subscribe-form" name="mc-embedded-subscribe-form" class="validate email-signup" target="_blank" novalidate> <div class="form-full"> <input class="email" type="email" value="" name="EMAIL" placeholder="Enter your email"/> <input type="submit" class="submit" value="SUBMIT" name="subscribe" id="mc-embedded-subscribe" class="validate submit" target="_blank" novalidate> <div style="position: absolute; left: -5000px;"><input type="text" nname="b_debb63dba6fc6484e0048cf97_0349ef44a6" tabindex="-1" value=""> </div> </div> <div id="mce-responses" class="clear"> <div class="response" id="mce-error-response" style="display:none"></div> <div class="response" id="mce-success-response" style="display:none"></div> </div> <!-- real people should not fill this in and expect good things - do not remove this or risk form bot signups--> </form> <script type='text/javascript' src='//s3.amazonaws.com/downloads.mailchimp.com/js/mc-validate.js'></script><script type='text/javascript'>(function($) {window.fnames = new Array(); window.ftypes = new Array();fnames[0]='EMAIL';ftypes[0]='email';fnames[1]='FNAME';ftypes[1]='text';fnames[2]='LNAME';ftypes[2]='text';}(jQuery));var $mcj = jQuery.noConflict(true); </script> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="container bottom"> <div>&copy; 2018 Brick &amp; Wonder. All Rights Reserved. </div> </div> </footer> <script type="text/javascript" src="//platform.twitter.com/widgets.js"></script> <script src="/site/themes/main/js/main.min.js"></script> <script> (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga'); ga('create', 'UA-74832017-1', 'auto'); ga('send', 'pageview'); </script> </body> </html> ') in Cache.php line 55
  6. at Cache->terminate(object(Request), object(Response)) in Kernel.php line 145
  7. at Kernel->terminate(object(Request), object(Response)) in index.php line 132